Still Don't Get Bitcoin? Here's an Explanation For Five ...
Still Don't Get Bitcoin? Here's an Explanation For Five ...
Bitcoin Definition - Tech Terms
What is Bitcoin Mining and How Does it Work? (2020 Updated)
Bitcoin Definition - investopedia.com
What Is Bitcoin: Explanation for Beginners in Simple Terms ...
"My @Bitstocks_ presentation from @RealCoinGeek. This is only just the beginning of what #gravity will mean for the world 🙏🏽. Bitstocks to offer simple, innovative banking with Bitcoin SV https://youtu.be/JVlOTBiIn2A via @YouTube"
Can someone in this group do a simple explanation of wallets & what the prefixes mean? For example: this is one of my Bitcoin addresses-- 19KKcqaJvGFKHC8KJiaHr7m6n1w6E4TZT5 so how on my Nano S do I update to Sedwic... Or do I even need to? Some on this group are saying the Sedwic address is better?
"The way to stop crypto currency. Stop it developing as a cash system. Government can force the use of Fiat, this is what legal tender means. In time, value reaches a financial carry capacity. If Bitcoin is not used as a payment system, it is simple for government to control."
Can someone in this group do a simple explanation of wallets & what the prefixes mean? For example: this is one of my Bitcoin addresses-- 19KKcqaJvGFKHC8KJiaHr7m6n1w6E4TZT5 so how on my Nano S do I update to Sedwic... Or do I even need to? Some on this group are saying the Sedwic address /r/Bitcoin
01-03 05:33 - 'If Hilary did have a 90% chance of winning that would mean that 1 out of every 10 times she would lose. Saying that Trump was an underdog statistically is in no way biased, it was a simple fact. / By your logic when ESPN...' by /u/elbanofeliz removed from /r/Bitcoin within 177-187min
''' If Hilary did have a 90% chance of winning that would mean that 1 out of every 10 times she would lose. Saying that Trump was an underdog statistically is in no way biased, it was a simple fact. By your logic when ESPN says that their models show that the Patriots have an 85% chance to win they are automatically biased against whoever the Patriots are playing. ''' Context Link Go1dfish undelete link unreddit undelete link Author: elbanofeliz
"The way to stop crypto currency. Stop it developing as a cash system. Government can force the use of Fiat, this is what legal tender means. In time, value reaches a financial carry capacity. If Bitcoin is not used as a payment system, it is simple for government to control."
Could we do a simple poll of what bitcoin wallets do we use? I mean, someone can write his wallet to add it and the rest of us put an upvote or a downvote.. or could you link it to me if it already exists? Thank you! /r/Bitcoin
02-03 07:47 - 'I even get downvoted for being a humanitarian. / Edit: Whomever downvoted me, go fuck yourself you simple minded piece of shit. / Nothing you say in r/bitcoin means anything and is a waste of time.' by /u/supersatoshi removed from /r/Bitcoin within 12-17min
02-22 00:12 - 'Technically it would require a hard fork which means for more than 50% of miners to agree. It would require little coding change. One simple way would be to change the block reward so it was x bitcoins per block forever. / You...' by /u/ismith23 removed from /r/Bitcoin within 9-14min
''' Technically it would require a hard fork which means for more than 50% of miners to agree. It would require little coding change. One simple way would be to change the block reward so it was x bitcoins per block forever. You would probably end with 2 coins, bitcoin classic and bitcoin. There is no inherent reason for the 21 million limit, it is just based on the current block reward halving. ''' Context Link Go1dfish undelete link unreddit undelete link Author: ismith23
Small reviews of (I think) all incremental games I've ever played on Android
I don't know if this will be useful to anyone. So I write a line or two about every game I play, and decided to find all the incremental in my game journal and post them here. It starts with the latest games I've played and I think goes back to several years back. One thing I've realized is I have such a love-hate-hate relationship with this genre since I think I've hated 90% of the games and 100% of myself after each incremental phase. I usually angrily stop playing them for a while and restart them again, so this is more or less a journal of addiction, I suppose. THE BEST GAMES I'VE PLAYED ARE THESE (no order):
Honorable Mention: Eggs, Inc The rest: more or less hated it Additional comment if you decide to scan through it, I complain a lot, so it is perfectly reasonable and normal to think, "why the fuck are you even playing these games, idiot??". ------ Time Idle RPG This game was confusing. It tells me the game's resources is time, where you get 1 of it every second, but that's not really something as unique as I assumed. It would have been cool if time as resources meant you used it to deal with something related to time. Maybe time travel? Maybe slowing and speeding time? Instead time as resource buys you stuff like a library. And then you buy a camp or something. Honestly, I wasn't really feeling it. 2 Path of Idling The biggest cardinal sin for me when it comes to incremental is when a game has a lot of features and it just completely throws them all at you instantly. The joy of a great incremental is how things slowly open up and each new achievement feels progress. The game is a RPG game and these are the things that opened up for me in the first few hours. Combat which includes normal fighting, dungeon, raid, boss, PVP (locked, but it just needs an ascend, which I haven't done) Skills Hero upgrades which include Passive (strength, defence, stamina, intelligence), Train, and a huge Tree Town which you can buy workers who get you various things like gold, orbs, knowledge, etc. You can upgrade stuff here. Quest that also includes Perks and Skill quests. Gear which 5 equipment slots, plus craft plus trade plus smelt Also gear for your Pet, which is also another tab! Now, here is the thing. Because I have all of this pretty much instantly, I don't really know which ones are helping me go past a well. How is adding 10 points in strength helping me? Should I have added five in strength instead and five in defence? I have already bought 20 or so upgrades in the Tree, but I have no idea if I am made the optimal choice. There is no real excitement with getting new gear. And so on. The dev has added a lot of features, now it's time to rework the game, and have the features take their time. 2 Idle Slayer The game is like a super simple platformer. Your character is running and any enemy it hits, it automatically slays it. There is no HP, and all enemies die in one shot. Your only active play is jumping occasionally to grab coins or hit the flying enemies. Also, you have a run skill that has a cool down. With the coins, we get new weapons that give us more coins. Enemies give us souls which is used for the prestige system that provides us with an interesting skill tree which provides a lot of choices on the path you want to do in terms of upgrades. So far excellent, however, the game has an extremely serious issue of pacing. The game initially progresses so fast that in the first hour or so, you get almost all the weapons aside from the last two, which then grinds down to a snail pace. You can upgrade your past weapons, but they never really get into play again. Reaching high levels of past weapons sometimes gave me upgrades of that weapon of 10,000% but they still did nothing to my overall coin per second. I think the pacing needs to be fully reworked. It would have been nice to get new weapons after certain prestige cycles, so that every new weapon feels like we have passed a significant wall. The best part of an incremental game for me is to face a wall, and when I finally break it, I feel powerful again for a while. This game feels like this though, powerful powerful powerful powerful WALL........break it....WALL. And so on. I'm still playing it as I want to get some of the skills, but I feel like it could have been so much better. 4 Exponential Idle A very back to the foundation kind of incremental. The premise is that you are a student and working on a formula. There is a neat story where as you progress in the game, your character progresses through university. Each upgrade gives you more and more automation until I reached a stage where I would check back once every 2 or 3 days, click a 2nd layer prestige reset, and close it. Meaning the game was something like 5 seconds of game player every 2 days. I just opened it for this review and realized I had reached the end game. The story wraps up and it tells me "You can take a rest. Travel a bit. Go outside!" NO, DON'T TELL ME WHAT TO DO GAME. 3 Factoid Factoid & Spark should have the same review as they are almost the same game with only small differences. The games are the most basic kind of incremental, where you buy something with resources, until you get the next thing which gives you more of the resources. Both give you upgrades to speed things up, and finally prestige and it's own prestige upgrades. That's it. It's nice little change of pace from all the recent incremental that sometimes do too much, but obviously due to the very simple nature of it, it does eventually feel pointless, specially after you more or less open up everything and the prestige upgrades just keep repeating. 3 Spark Factoid & Spark should have the same review as they are almost the same game with only small differences. The games are the most basic kind of incremental, where you buy something with resources, until you get the next thing which gives you more of the resources. Both give you upgrades to speed things up, and finally prestige and it's own prestige upgrades. That's it. It's nice little change of pace from all the recent incremental that sometimes do too much, but obviously due to the very simple nature of it, it does eventually feel pointless, specially after you more or less open up everything and the prestige upgrades just keep repeating. 3 Antimatter Dimensions Easily top 5 incremental on mobile. Does everything perfectly. You progress nicely, and when new features open it, not only is it rewarding but more importantly, it keeps adding new dimensions (lol) to the game. I'd at the end game as I write this, and I realize that there was no point in the game where it felt stale. Each new prestige layer made the game feel fresh and almost like a new incremental game. 5 Melvor Idle It seems this game was mainly aimed at Runescape players, which is probably why it didn't click for me. It also run extremely slow on my phone which also played a part in me not really getting into. 2 A Girl Adrift The animation is really pretty and is a nice change of pace for incrementals, but I didn't really like the too much active play. Really had to keep going back and forth to different areas to do the fishing which got too repetitive for me. You travel to different areas of the map to catch fish, which you get points and then you upgrade stuff, but I didn't really find any real excitement about the upgrades because I kept having to go back to previous areas to fish similar creatures. 3 Archer: Danger Phone I'm really annoyed how terrible of a game this was. Two things I like, the TV show "Archer" and incremental games, and it's done in the most lazy manner. The game is the worst aspect of idle games where it's just a straight path of clicking the next upgrade with absolutely zero decision making. Every once in a while there is a mini game where Archer gets to shoot others but it's done in the most basic form of early 2000s flash games, where the animation budget is probably 3 dollars. Same static background and both enemies and Archer have just two animation frames. The absolute laziness of it is almost insulting to the player, because it feels like we aren't even worth the effort. There is an Archer story in the game which develops really fast, which is the only positive part, but no voice acting is again another evidence that the creators of the game weren't given any budget for this. 1 Home Quest This game is way too slow. You have to collect materials to build your settlement but everything takes time, so you click for a few seconds, and then you have to leave the game. Which I'm fine with, but the problem isn't the idle part of it, it's how the idle part of it combines with constant checking of the game which annoys me. I like an idle game where you forget to start the game for a day, you come up to a lot of resources, but this is a game which needs you to check back in every 30 minutes or an hour to really get anywhere. I felt that the micromanagement was getting worse as I progressed (without any actual thing to do when I am active in the game) that made me give up. 2 Idle Industry This is probably an interesting game, but I gave up because the one thing I really disliked was the amount of resources and manufacturing that very quickly opens to you. You can buy raw materials, and you can either sell these raw materials or turn them into finished goods and sell them either. And each of these has several upgrade options (increase selling price, increase production, etc). Without even really getting too deep into the game, I have around 20 raw materials and around 30 finished products. A satisfying part of this genre is to have things slow open up for you, which gives me a decent feeling of satisfaction. But the money I got would quickly open up new products, so I would just jump ahead and purchase more expensive ones, and after a while I had a lot of materials and products at zero, and was instead focusing on latter ones. 2 Masters of Madness Somewhat neat atmosphere and visuals, but too much active clicking. Click, upgrade to get more per clicks, get minions to get you some points without clicking, typical clicker, but with the added benefit of almost no idling. I like idling incrementals but clickers is a hard no from me. 1 Soda Dungeon 2 Basically similar to the first one, as far as I could tell. I did "finish" it but maybe I shouldn't have, since it really is the same thing from early on, specially once you get all the heroes and you kind of sort out which characters work best, then it's just the same. But because it was somewhat short and no real wall, it was at least easy to stick to it to the end. 2 Bacterial Takeover Played for a decent amount and was actually more interesting that I thought, given the buttload of ad incentives. You create and upgrade bacteria, attack planets, and eventually go into a blackhole to prestige. Most of the game was good, but the part that killed it for me was the prestige system. Once you prestige, planets get super easy to attack, which becomes a lot of active play. I realized that each prestige was taking me at least 30 minutes to get to where I was, and it was just meaningless clicking. It got to a point where I was putting off prestige because it seemed like it would be a hassle so I stopped. 2 LogRogue Cute graphics. The hero sort of hopping to hit the tiny monsters is cute to look at, but how long can you look at it and do nothing before you realize that it's boring? I suppose this is a game where it's just not for me. I don't like to have my phone open on a game and just watch it like a crazy person and do nothing. My rule is simple for incrementals. While the app is open, be active, if there isn't any choices to make, close the app while resources build up or whatever. I don't like it being open while I do nothing. 3 A Kittens Game Incremental games are so strange. I get in and out of the phases. I loved this for so long and so obsessively that I wanted to only play incremental games. And then, just like that, I was wondering why the fuck I was wasting my time with this. Has happened countless times before. But still probably the best incremental ever. 5 A Dark Room An incremental cult classic of sorts but I don't find it really matches the genre. There is a bit of incremental at the beginning with people huts and stuff but then its just a ascii exploring game, which wasn't interesting to me. 2 Little Healer Saw it mentioned in the Reddit incremental forum in one of the posts and thought it was a healer themed incremental which sounded neat. But it's like being a healer in a raid in World of Warcraft without any if the extras. Just a couple of bars representing your team mates and you healing them while they fight the boss. I didn't even like playing the healer in WoW so no way would I play this game. 1 Clickie Zoo Started playing for a few days until I realized there a beta released with the dev reworking the game completely from scratch and releasing it as "Idle Zoo Tycoon". So, played that instead but this seemed like a game I would enjoy anyway. 4 Idling to Rule the Gods The UI and one drawing if your character is really ugly enough to be distracting to me. The game, seemed interesting and I eventually was into it, but seems like a game that has been constantly being updated, which is not always a good thing, because features are obviously updated regularly to it, making the whole thing a bit bloaty. I guess, this is the problem with this game for me, it's too fat. Also, one main part of the game is that your character creates Shadow Clones up to a maximum limit. Which is fine except the clones can't be made in offline mode. This might not be a big deal in its original web browser game but that doesn't work as well in a mobile format. 2 Realm Grinder This is one of the really popular incremental and it's fanbase seems to love it for it's depth, but to be honest, I don't play these games for the depth, I play it for the simple dopamine rush of doing the same thing over and over again. It relaxes. Although, I didn't even get to the depth part because I dislike games where it rushes in the beginning. I constantly bought buildings, got spells, and got upgrades without even looking at the description. Apparently, later on, we can get complicated race upgades, which seems not what I'm looking for in such a genre. 2 Spaceplan A short (!!) incremental with an actual story (!!!). That's two cool points for it but unfortunately, the game mechanics of increment genre isn't so good. It's a space game with nice visuals and a great ending (cool music set to cool graphics) but the game itself wasn't really that fun. This same exact game would have been better in a different genre (maybe something like "Out There"?) 3 Zombidle Felt like idle games again and this is the kind of examples that kept me away. Too much clicking and seems like advancement will start to get irritating since it relies on IAPs 2 Eggs, Inc While I was playing it, Eggs, Inc was probably my favorite Android game I had ever played. But like most incremental games, there comes a moment when I suddenly stop and think, what am I doing? Because there is something fascinating about Incrementals. Their addictiveness is in a way the whole point. An incremental is less of a game and more an act of electronic addictiveness. What's the point? Eggs, Inc is a very well made and fun incremental but even the best in its genre is still pointless. 4 Castle Clicker Supposedly a mix of incremental and city building but didn't really find out since the clickings were way to much. I know this is supposed to be the genre but I like the incremental part more than the tapping part. This seemed to be a good way to hurt your fingers. 2 Endless Era This RPG clicker game is like other such games but with horrible GUI and animations. Tap tap tap. It's my fault for downloading such games. Why would I ever think this would be fun??? 1 Idle Quote An incremental game with a unique twist. This time we get to make up quotes! The first negative about the game and this irritates me a lot is most of the quotes are fake. A quick search on Google and this proves it. Quotes are generally attributed to Buddha or Ghandi or shit like that and it's usually fake like most quotes on the internet. This kills the major possible advantage of the game because I thought coming up with arbitrary words would at least give me some quotes to learn. Aside from the this, the game isn't fun either because it slows down very quickly meaning you combine words very slowly at a certain stage of the game and then it becomes a boring grind. 2 Monster Miser An incremental game with almost no graphics. We just see character portraits of monsters which we buy and then upgrade until we buy the next monster. Eventually we prestige which gives us multipliers. The only game choice is choosing between two monsters with each new monster with unique benefits. Annoyingly there is a max limit which I wish didn't exist because I wanted to prestige so much that I would be over powerful in upgrading like that "Idle Oil Tycoon". Still, pointless but reasonably fun. 3 Pocket Politics An incremental take on politics sounds fun but it's so generic that it could have been about anything. A Capitalist idle game or a cooking idle game, it wouldn't matter. IAP was also the usual shitty kind. 1 Time Clickers A shooter incremental sounds like a cool twist but it's not a FPS like I imagined it would be. I'm just stuck in a room and I was shooting blocks. Upgrades didn't give me any enjoyment since I was shooting fucking blocks. 1 Tap Tap Fish - Abyssrium I thought this was going to be relaxing incremental but the ridiculous and generic IAPs and all the social integeration spoil it. Too much time is spent in them asking you to buy or share or tweet or post or give them a blowjob. And there is nothing relaxing about that. 2 Cartoon 999 Incremental game about comic book writers, but not the marvel DC kind, it seemed to be the webcomic one and I think it's a Korean developer so all the characters and injokes made no sense to me. The whole thing was just targeted to a very specific audience. 2 Dungeon Manager Incremental games need to be simple but this is beyond simple, it's just upgrade a fighter to level 5, go to next dungeon character, do the same, and just continue without any of the delicious balancing of upgrades like other idle games. 2 Final Fortress Incremental games are already pointless but when it's super heavy on IAP than its also annoying, but when it always has bugs that doesn't register my offline earnings, then it just needs a uninstall in its face. The zombie skin was also crappy. 1 Mana Maker Here is how I know this clicker isn't very good. It doesn't make me hate all clickers and my life and mobile gaming in general for being so addictive and pointless. So fail, sorry. 2 Infinity Dungeon The usual incremental RPG that I should probably never play again. Starts simple enough and then gets more or a chore as you play. 1 Another incremental game which I had promised myself not to play anymore because they are so pointless and repetitive and endless. Well, this wasn't infinite and had a goal at 999 level so I thought it was good but while the humor was cute, the game did become very repetitive. Every 10 levels the slimes changed but after every 100 levels the whole thing restarted and while the monsters got stronger, I seemed to get even stronger. So the game became easier as I progressed and there was no more challenge. By level 800, I gave up. 2 Tap Dungeon RPG Okay, I'm running out of ways to complain about those incremental RPG games that all have similar problems. It starts off reasonably fast and fun but soon it seems like I am in a data entry job. Doing the same thing over and over again with little changes. 1 Dungeon 999 F: Secret of Slime Dungeon Another incremental game which I had promised myself not to play anymore because they are so pointless and repetitive and endless. Well, this wasn't infinite and had a goal at 999 level so I thought it was good but while the humor was cute, the game did become very repetitive. Every 10 levels the slimes changed but after every 100 levels the whole thing restarted and while the monsters got stronger, I seemed to get even stronger. So the game became easier as I progressed and there was no more challenge. By level 800, I gave up. 2 Tap Dungeon RPG Okay, I'm running out of ways to complain about those incremental RPG games that all have similar problems. It starts off reasonably fast and fun but soon it seems like I am in a data entry job. Doing the same thing over and over again with little changes. 1 Tower of Hero You start on the first floor of the tower and keep fighting your way up by summoning your heroes (by clicking) and recruiting other fighters, get upgrades, level up, and then, ugh, here is the typical incremental RPG part, restart, get items, and do it ALL over again. There is something fun about restarting and getting slowly stronger each time but it also feels so pointless after a while. Such a pointless genre now that I have played a billion of such titles, heh. 3 Pageboy Yet another incremental RPG which I have no idea why I downloaded because I'm sick of the genre. I played a pageboy to a knight who does the fighting while I collect the lot. I collect the loot, buy stuff for the knight, and eventually I restart to do the same thing again and get better items but this game I didn't even RESTART! Because fuck it! Fuck it! 2 Idle Warriors The story is cute. Human population is regressing while monster population is on the rise. So the humans start enslaving monsters to mine for them! The brave warriors beat the crap out of monsters, kidnap the bosses, and enslave them. The animation of monsters slaving away while speech balloons above them talk about their wife and children is funny. But the game itself is another RPG incremental which I should start staying away from. These games are like a chore for me nowadays because I'm doing the same crap again and again. The blame is probably on me because it seems like a reasonably solid game. But hey, fuck it, I PERSONALLY didn't enjoy it. 2 Tap! Tap! Faraway! Any game that is remotely like Tap Titan scares me. They are addictive at first and very fast moving but after every restart gets more and more annoying. It soon turns into a time eating activity with the player having to redo the initial levels to get relics to get better items to progress further to restart to get relics to and so on until the player realizes how much time he is putting in the game for a repetitive activity. 2 Auto RPG Now that is a title the game developers didn't spend too much time on. RPG battles are automatic but I can help out by clicking like a mad man. I started with one hero but would get additional members in my party as the story progressed. Party members receive skills as as they level up and while all the skill usage is automatic, it did give me a sense of progression which is extremely important in a RPG and which I think is usually lacking in incremental games. It usually starts feeling useless but in this game at least there are new maps, new members, and an actual end sight! There is an infinity stage once the last boss is defeated but I am glad the infinity stage happens AFTER the end and it's not the game itself. 4 Merchant Hire a hero and send on to battle. The battles is done automatically and takes time, starts with something short like 10 seconds with each battle taking longer. The loot is raw materials which can be used to craft equipment which also takes real life time with better items taking longer. The crafted items can either be sold or equipped to the hero to make him be able to fight stronger monsters. I was worried I would hate the longer crafting and fighting times because I hate games which I have to watch for a task to finish but even though the durations for longer, I had more to do. However, I don't know what would have happened in the end game because I gave up on it. New maps were exactly like the first map just with different heroes but the progression was similar in each level which felt that I was doing the exact same thing all over again but with longer task times. 2 Idle Oil Tycoon This is the best idle game I played. It's graphics aren't just minor, they are none existent. It's just numbers, so basic that my sister thought I was on a stock market app. It's such a simple concept. Invest, get oil, upgrade then like other idlers restart to get a bonus and do the full thing all over again. When I finished the game, I played the unlimited mode which I played until the unlimited mode couldn't handle the numbers anymore. 5 Soda Dungeon This kind-of Idle Dungeon was great. I started with weak ass fighters who would fight on my behalf while I collected the loot. I then got to use the lot to upgrade the sofa bar to recruit more adventurers. Not sure why it was a sofa bar. Maybe they wanted to make it a family game and not have alcohol? Sounds weird but the sofa element in a RPG game sounds weirder. The game only hit a brick for me when, like most other incremental games, there is no real closure. Once I thought I bet the big bad guy, it just goes on, harder but similar enough with no end in sight. Eventually, we have to stop playing right, but it always feels a bit like a let down when I don't feel like I have finished the game. 4 10 Billion Wives Kept Man Life The two games from this company, 10 Billion Wives and Kept Man Life, have similar strengths and weaknesses. I liked the silly premises from both. In 10BM, I had to get married as much as I could, using the loves I collect to marry more expensive wives! In KML, I'm a boyfriend who doesn't work and I have to please my career gf so she would take care of me. Both start reasonably fast and I was willing to grind through difficult parts but the end game is like a brick wall. Passing through it to get all the achievements is pretty much impossible unless one puts in way too many hours. And it's a shame because I really wanted to get all the achievements to see all the tiny little extra stuff. 3 Adventure Capitalist One of the better incremental games, but now that I am out of the short lived incremental fan phase, I realized how dumb the genre is. Tap, tap, tap, upgrade, do this a million times, reset, and do it all over again like a moron. The game does deserve credits for me acting like a moron and playing it for so long but I also cheated and got free cash and then if occupying became even more pointless. 3 The Monolith A combination of an incremental and a civilization building game seemed like an excellent idea and in some ways, it was, specially how we get to upgrade through the ages from cavemen to futuristic. But no offline feature means that the resets aren't enticing. 2 USSR Simulator An incremental game that has a great theme (USSR!) but absolutely horrible to enjoy, even though I did stick to it. After a certain upgrades, the game just turned into me popping in the game, clicking an upgrade and then forgetting about the game for a few days. 2 RPG Clicker They should call these games tappers not clickers. We are not clicking anything on a touchscreen device. Anyway, tap tap tap level up buy weapons tap tap and uninstall. 1 Logging Quest Logging Quest 2 [Review is for the original and its sequel] There is not much of a difference between the game. I actually played them both at the same time because the actual game is offline. You choose your hero, send them to a dungeon, and then come back to the game after a while to see how well they did. I thought an offline RPG like this might be interesting but then, if you don't really play a game, how much fun can it be? 1 Another pointless incremental. I was in an incremental phase and got so many incremental games that I know realize were absolutely pointless. Hit a tree, buy upgrades, get a new hero, and continue hitting a tree. Not much offline it seems which is what I like about incrementals. 1 Galaxy Clicker A space incremental that should have been a lot of fun. You get to upgrade your spaceship and buy new ones and explorer new planets. But first of all, the interface is so ugly that it makes playing the game less enjoyable. And a lot of things I didn't really get no matter how much I would play like the full exploring planets. The spaceships were nice, so it could have been fun. 2 Megatramp A pretty pointless incremental kind of game. You are a tramp and then you can collect money to buy upgrades to make more money, with no strategy needed, nor any effort needs to be made to hurt your brain cells. 1 Inflation RPG It supposed to be some kind of incremental RPG, I think, which has you resetting and getting more powerful and then fighting monsters to get insane levels. It is very unique but I couldn't get into it. 2 Widget RPG Are you fucking with me? This is button bashing rpg in the most extreme manner. You get a widget, so you don't even have to open the game and distract yourself from the button bushing. Just click the button and the game plays behind the scenes and gets you experience, loot, and kills. It's a ridiculous idea that is fun for a few minutes to see what they come up with but there is only so much button bashing you can do. 2 Capitalist Tycoon I downloaded this game because I was in an incremental/idle game phase and really enjoyed AdVenture Capitalist. But this game is nothing like that. On the surface, it seems similar, buy small investments, make money, buy bigger investments, and so on. But with this game, there is no offline mode, and you keep having to wake up managers, AND the goal is to see how much you make in one year. Bah. I prefer the incremental approach which makes you build and build and build, not try to rush it in just a year. 2 Clicking Bad An incremental clicking game that is themed after Breaking Bad. It is a fun idea it's a very simple game with little to do aside from the obvious of upgrading and upgrading. The only twist might be to balance out making lots of money selling drugs and not attracting the law but even that is only a small challenge at the start. Eventually, you will get enough upgrades to bring the law risk so down that it makes no impact on the game play. 2 Zombie Tapper A super basic incremental clicker game with a zombie team. Click click click to eat brains, use brains (?) to buy zombies to do the brain eating for you and then buy upgrades for your zombies, and buy new zombies and it all feels very pointless. 1 Bitcoin Billionaire I started to enjoy incremental games, but it needs to have a good offline mode, because I don’t want to just play a game where I keep tapping. But that doesn’t mean I didn’t play. I played it, and I played a lot of it, because I could reset the game (like most incremental games) and it gives you a small benefit where you could finish the full game a bit faster (it gives you bonus income). So, I kept finishing and resetting, and each time the start to finish would shorten, so I thought I would reach a stage where I could finish each start-to-finish in an instant! It didn’t happen. I got bored first. 3 Tap Titan An addictive tapping game. Just tap on the creatures, level up, get new skills, hire heroes, and then reset and to it all over again to progress further. It’s an incremental game where it depends on resets to progress, but no real offline bonus, so you have to be playing online. Which got boring, so I installed an app that does the tapping for me, which is actually a stupid way to play the game, but this isn’t an attempt to prove to anyone my intelligence. Anyway, thankfully something went wrong and my progress got deleted, WHICH WAS A GOOD THING, because the game was extremely addictive. 4 God Squad I’ve realized most incremental games are stupid. Tap on monsters to kill, collect gold, buy Roman Gods, level them up, fight other monsters, and then get bored. 1
Putting $400M of Bitcoin on your company balance sheet
Also posted on my blog as usual. Read it there if you can, there are footnotes and inlined plots. A couple of months ago, MicroStrategy (MSTR) had a spare $400M of cash which it decided to shift to Bitcoin (BTC). Today we'll discuss in excrutiating detail why this is not a good idea. When a company has a pile of spare money it doesn't know what to do with, it'll normally do buybacks or start paying dividends. That gives the money back to the shareholders, and from an economic perspective the money can get better invested in other more promising companies. If you have a huge pile of of cash, you probably should be doing other things than leave it in a bank account to gather dust. However, this statement from MicroStrategy CEO Michael Saylor exists to make it clear he's buying into BTC for all the wrong reasons:
“This is not a speculation, nor is it a hedge. This was a deliberate corporate strategy to adopt a bitcoin standard.”
Let's unpack it and jump into the economics Bitcoin:
Is Bitcoin money?
No. Or rather BTC doesn't act as money and there's no serious future path for BTC to become a form of money. Let's go back to basics. There are 3 main economic problems money solves: 1. Medium of Exchange. Before money we had to barter, which led to the double coincidence of wants problem. When everyone accepts the same money you can buy something from someone even if they don't like the stuff you own. As a medium of exchange, BTC is not good. There are significant transaction fees and transaction waiting times built-in to BTC and these worsen the more popular BTC get. You can test BTC's usefulness as a medium of exchange for yourself right now: try to order a pizza or to buy a random item with BTC. How many additional hurdles do you have to go through? How many fewer options do you have than if you used a regular currency? How much overhead (time, fees) is there? 2. Unit of Account. A unit of account is what you compare the value of objects against. We denominate BTC in terms of how many USD they're worth, so BTC is a unit of account presently. We can say it's because of lack of adoption, but really it's also because the market value of BTC is so volatile. If I buy a $1000 table today or in 2017, it's roughly a $1000 table. We can't say that a 0.4BTC table was a 0.4BTC table in 2017. We'll expand on this in the next point: 3. Store of Value. When you create economic value, you don't want to be forced to use up the value you created right away. For instance, if I fix your washing machine and you pay me in avocados, I'd be annoyed. I'd have to consume my payment before it becomes brown, squishy and disgusting. Avocado fruit is not good money because avocadoes loses value very fast. On the other hand, well-run currencies like the USD, GBP, CAD, EUR, etc. all lose their value at a low and most importantly fairly predictible rate. Let's look at the chart of the USD against BTC While the dollar loses value at a predictible rate, BTC is all over the place, which is bad. One important use money is to write loan contracts. Loans are great. They let people spend now against their future potential earnings, so they can buy houses or start businesses without first saving up for a decade. Loans are good for the economy. If you want to sign something that says "I owe you this much for that much time" then you need to be able to roughly predict the value of the debt in at the point in time where it's due. Otherwise you'll have a hard time pricing the risk of the loan effectively. This means that you need to charge higher interests. The risk of making a loan in BTC needs to be priced into the interest of a BTC-denominated loan, which means much higher interest rates. High interests on loans are bad, because buying houses and starting businesses are good things.
BTC has a fixed supply, so these problems are built in
Some people think that going back to a standard where our money was denominated by a stock of gold (the Gold Standard) would solve economic problems. This is nonsense. Having control over supply of your currency is a good thing, as long as it's well run. See here Remember that what is desirable is low variance in the value, not the value itself. When there are wild fluctuations in value, it's hard for money to do its job well. Since the 1970s, the USD has been a fiat money with no intrinsic value. This means we control the supply of money. Let's look at a classic poorly drawn econ101 graph The market price for USD is where supply meets demand. The problem with a currency based on an item whose supply is fixed is that the price will necessarily fluctuate in response to changes in demand. Imagine, if you will, that a pandemic strikes and that the demand for currency takes a sharp drop. The US imports less, people don't buy anything anymore, etc. If you can't print money, you get deflation, which is worsens everything. On the other hand, if you can make the money printers go brrrr you can stabilize the price Having your currency be based on a fixed supply isn't just bad because in/deflation is hard to control. It's also a national security risk... The story of the guy who crashed gold prices in North Africa In the 1200s, Mansa Munsa, the emperor of the Mali, was rich and a devout Muslim and wanted everyone to know it. So he embarked on a pilgrimage to make it rain all the way to Mecca. He in fact made it rain so hard he increased the overall supply of gold and unintentionally crashed gold prices in Cairo by 20%, wreaking an economic havoc in North Africa that lasted a decade. This story is fun, the larger point that having your inflation be at the mercy of foreign nations is an undesirable attribute in any currency. The US likes to call some countries currency manipulators, but this problem would be serious under a gold standard.
Currencies are based on trust
Since the USD is based on nothing except the US government's word, how can we trust USD not to be mismanaged? The answer is that you can probably trust the fed until political stooges get put in place. Currently, the US's central bank managing the USD, the Federal Reserve (the Fed for friends & family), has administrative authority. The fed can say "no" to dumb requests from the president. People who have no idea what the fed does like to chant "audit the fed", but the fed is already one of the best audited US federal entities. The transcripts of all their meetings are out in the open. As is their balance sheet, what they plan to do and why. If the US should audit anything it's the Department of Defense which operates without any accounting at all. It's easy to see when a central bank will go rogue: it's when political yes-men are elected to the board. For example, before printing themselves into hyperinflation, the Venezuelan president appointed a sociologist who publicly stated “Inflation does not exist in real life” and instead is a made up capitalist lie. Note what happened mere months after his gaining control over the Venezuelan currency This is a key policy. One paper I really like, Sargent (1984) "The end of 4 big inflations" states:
The essential measures that ended hyperinflation in each of Germany,Austria, Hungary, and Poland were, first, the creation of an independentcentral bank that was legally committed to refuse the government'sdemand or additional unsecured credit and, second, a simultaneousalteration in the fiscal policy regime.
In english: *hyperinflation stops when the central bank can say "no" to the government." The US Fed, like other well good central banks, is run by a bunch of nerds. When it prints money, even as aggressively as it has it does so for good reasons. You can see why they started printing on March 15th as the COVID lockdowns started:
The Federal Reserve is prepared to use its full range of tools to support the flow of credit to households and businesses and thereby promote its maximum employment and price stability goals.
In english: We're going to keep printing and lowering rates until jobs are back and inflation is under control. If we print until the sun is blotted out, we'll print in the shade.
BTC is not gold
Gold is a good asset for doomsday-preppers. If society crashes, gold will still have value. How do we know that? Gold has held value throughout multiple historic catastrophes over thousands of years. It had value before and after the Bronze Age Collapse, the Fall of the Western Roman Empire and Gengis Khan being Gengis Khan. Even if you erased humanity and started over, the new humans would still find gold to be economically valuable. When Europeans d̶i̶s̶c̶o̶v̶e̶r̶e̶d̶ c̶o̶n̶q̶u̶e̶r̶e̶d̶ g̶e̶n̶o̶c̶i̶d̶e̶d̶ went to America, they found gold to be an important item over there too. This is about equivalent to finding humans on Alpha-Centauri and learning that they think gold is a good store of value as well. Some people are puzzled at this: we don't even use gold for much! But it has great properties: First, gold is hard to fake and impossible to manufacture. This makes it good to ascertain payment. Second, gold doesnt react to oxygen, so it doesn't rust or tarnish. So it keeps value over time unlike most other materials. Last, gold is pretty. This might sound frivolous, and you may not like it, but jewelry has actual value to humans. It's no coincidence if you look at a list of the wealthiest families, a large number of them trade in luxury goods. To paraphrase Veblen humans have a profound desire to signal social status, for the same reason peacocks have unwieldy tails. Gold is a great way to achieve that. On the other hand, BTC lacks all these attributes. Its value is largely based on common perception of value. There are a few fundamental drivers of demand:
Means of Exchange: if people seriously start using BTC to buy pizzas, then this creates a real demand for the currency to accomplish the short-term exchanges. As we saw previously, I'm not personally sold on this one and it's currently a negligible fraction of overall demand.
Criminal uses: Probably the largest inbuilt advantage of BTC is that it's anonymous, and so a great way to launder money. Hacker gangs use BTC to demand ransom on cryptolocker type attacks because it's a shared way for an honest company to pay and for the criminals to receive money without going to jail.
Apart from these, it's hard to argue that BTC will retain value throughout some sort of economic catastrophe.
BTC is really risky
One last statement from Michael Saylor I take offense to is this:
“We feel pretty confident that Bitcoin is less risky than holding cash, less risky than holding gold,” MicroStrategy CEO said in an interview
"BTC is less risky than holding cash or gold long term" is nonsense. We saw before that BTC is more volatile on face value, and that as long as the Fed isn't run by spider monkeys stacked in a trench coat, the inflation is likely to be within reasonable bounds. But on top of this, BTC has Abrupt downside risks that normal currencies don't. Let's imagine a few:
A critical software vulnerability is found in the BTC codebase, leading to a possible exploitation.
Xi Jinping decides he's had enough of rich people in China hiding their assets from him and bans BTC.
Some form of bank run takes hold for whatever reason. Because BTC wallets are uninsured, unlike regular banks, this compounds into a Black Tuesday style crash.
Blockchain solutions are fundamentally inefficient
Blockchain was a genius idea. I still marvel at the initial white paper which is a great mix of economics and computer science. That said, blockchain solutions make large tradeoffs in design because they assume almost no trust between parties. This leads to intentionally wasteful designs on a massive scale. The main problem is that all transactions have to be validated by expensive computational operations and double checked by multiple parties. This means waste:
BTC was estimated to use as much electricity as Belgium in 2019. It's hard to trace where the BTC mining comes from, but we can assume it has a huge carbon footprint.
A single transactions is necessarily expensive. A single transaction takes as much electricity as 800,000 VISA transactions, or watching 50,000 hours of youtube videos.
There is a large necessary tax on the transaction, since those checking the transaction extract a few BTC from it to be incentivized to do the work of checking it.
Many design problems can be mitigated by various improvements over BTC, but it remains that a simple database always works better than a blockchain if you can trust the parties to the transaction.
You'd have to have at least one participant who has access to the paywalled content, but ideally many more than that who can all participate in tossing the content back over the paywall.
You would need to have an immutable and accessible place to put the paywalled content so that other people could point their browsers to that location and see the same content that they would if they were looking at the source.
As noted, you'd want to eliminate as much legal risk as possible. That goes for both the content "suppliers" and the content "consumers" (or, Robinhood and those he gives to).
I am not sure exactly what would happen if I just started copying and pasting paywalled content on, say, Reddit, but I am pretty sure it would catch up with me eventually because I am explicitly re-publishing. This solution would need to be so foolproof that it would put those who would otherwise enforce against it in an untenable position. So, bear with me, here's what I want to know: how flawed, immoral, antisocial, and generally lacking is the following idea? My suspicion is that it is a pretty bad idea and is also pretty naive, but it's still been fun to think about and maybe some of you would like to discuss it. I am interested in any implications that come to mind. ~ The idea: If you want to participate in this scheme, you install a browser extension. If you have access to any paywalled content, then every time you visit a page and view that content, the browser extension grabs the text and compresses it to its smallest possible representation. Next, the browser extension make the smallest possible arbitrary transaction on the blockchain (looks to be about $0.06 currently), and stores as much of the article as it can fit in the OP_RETURN field, which is basically just a blank field for arbitrary text and currently has a size limit of 256 bytes (Note: There are tons of similar ways to accomplish the same thing, any many better blockchains for this use case. I just don't really keep up with the smaller blockchains and think that we can use the Bitcoin blockchain as a simple way to demonstrate the idea). It may take a few transactions to store an entire article, but once it's part of the blockchain, it's there forever, and anyone who would want to subsequently view that article would only need to have access to the indices of the transactions and software that can de-compress the OP_RETURN values and reconstruct the article. I imagine this would also happen in the browser extension. In this way, it's a lot like private torrent trackers. Everybody shares what they have access to, and the pieces of data that comprise the underlying media fly around the network freely. The software client is responsible for piecing them together and making the data cohesive for a given end user. Today, a torrent client is completely legal, but having pirated media on your computer is not. Also, I'm pretty sure that opening your media collection to peers is also illegal, but I'm not actually sure. Using the blockchain as the storage mechanism changes the calculus a little bit. You're not storing any pirated data on your machine, rather, you are stashing bits and pieces of it in a decentralized ledger, which nobody owns, meaning that nobody is really accountable for it. It's also impossible to take down. The question of legality here is something like "are you allowed to include copyrighted works in transaction text on the blockchain?". And if not, how many chunks would the article need to be broken apart into to make it no long "The Article", but rather just pieces of arbitrary data which, if put together in the right order, would happen to reproduce "The Article"? Someone who is more knowledgable than I am would need to chime in here. ~ I wanted to get a sense of if this is even practical so I grabbed the text from a NYT article called "Opinion | No, the Democrats Haven’t Gone Over the Edge" by David Brooks. After running the text through 1000 rounds of compression I got it down to 2702 bytes. The current OP_RETURN size limit for a BTC transaction is 256 bytes, so you would need to make around 10 transactions to store this single article. And each transaction has a fee that goes to miners, which appears to be around 128 satoshis/byte according to https://privacypros.io/tools/bitcoin-fee-estimato The BTC sent in a given transaction is recoverable, because it could be sent to a wallet that is owned by the sender, but the fees are unavoidable. Given the current rate, storing a NYT Opinion article on the Bitcoin blockchain, forever, would cost about 2707 * 128 Satoshis, or roughly $37. So my immediate thought is wow that's expensive. I also know that it's frowned upon by the Bitcoin community and would be perceived as antagonistic by the miners. But my guess is that there's a better way to accomplish the same thing (again, off-chain transactions or using a totally different blockchain such as Ethereum, or BSV). In fact, in "The unfuckening of OP_RETURN", Shadders shows that one can practically store up to 100kb of text in a given BSV transaction (BSV is a fork of bitcoin, which aims to align more with Satoshi's "original" vision). The result of Shadders experiment? Well, here's the complete prequel to "Alice and Wonderland" in a single transaction, on the blockchain, forever: https://whatsonchain.com/tx/ef21e71d00b9fce174222e679640b09e29ac8a55f321c93e64b16cc3109959f8 Good thing Alice and Wonderland is in the public domain, right? Or... should it even matter what's "public" and what's "paywalled"? What do you think?
EDIT : Thanks to everybody for pointing out the few mistakes/improvements that can be made in this new-player level guide. For the sake of summarizing here : - Intel documents are NOT worth 250k. I didn't check them on the flea before writing this and for some reason I always remembered them at 250k. Game is in maintenance so I can't check the real price. That being said, it's still profitable to craft USB into Intel, it's just not x2 profitable. - Scav case : moonshine / intel docs, some people seem to say they've never been profitable. I personally *did not* measure those, I eyeballed it. I'm working on so much shit that I didn't bother. On average I think that I'm in a net positive, but it's as believable as people saying they're not : without proof we can't really say for sure. That bein said, it's certainly more profitable to run lower-tier scav runs that are *faster* when you're online, and to run a moonshine or intel when you log off. It's more efficient to get a lot of runs while you can re-start them every time. - Crafting moonshine : It's not profitable to spam it ; I was under the assumption that the average player who will read this will usually not play for 4-5 hours straight and will end up collecting yesterday's moonshine, craft a new one, and that's it. If that's you're rythm then yes, spam it. If you intend to play more than one craft worth's of time, then you will craft moonshine faster than you can spend it, and it's not really worth to sell it on the flea except to up your market reputation for a small loss (about 10k). So in short : craft moonshine to be able to start a moonshine run for when you log off, but you don't *need* more than that.
Check this out
Here is some actual data on the lavatory !! Hey everybody ! I know it can be a struggle to get a stable economy in this game, especially when you die a lot. Today I'm gonna try and give a few guidelines on how to make money safely, efficiently, fast, or in any other way we can think of. If you're struggling to stay above the 15-20 million rouble treshold, this guide is definitely for you. Very often I'll hear newer players say "Damn I can't seem to make money, I keep loosing. Every time I take gear I die instantly". There is some truth in that. Today I'll help you improve your survival rate, but most importantly I'll unbalance the other side of the equation. When you complain about losing a lot of money, I will help you spend less by a significant margin, as well as earn more. You'll also get rid of gear fera naturally. Remember this throughout this very, very long read : It all depends on how you want to play, and how much. Some of these tips will not fit how you want to play the game, and like Nikita always says : this game is supposed to be fun before anything else.
Safety Score : 100% Reward : Moderate but very stable. Maxing your hideout should be one of your top priorities, probably before telling your mom how much you love her every now and then. If you're not doing either of those, the big gamer in you knows what to do. Early wipe, save your fuel for when you're online and playing. If you're playing, your generator should definitely be running and all your stations should be crafting something. Once you have Medstation 1, Workbench 1 and Lavatory 2, you really have no reason to turn your generator off when you're playing. Once you have the bitcoin farm, you should never turn off the generator. Medstation : Craft salewas and/or IFAKs permanently. They cost 8k and sell for 15k. That's a net profit of about 25k / hour for salewas, as well as never having to buy any. Lavatory : Always be crafting Bleach. If you have 2 empty blue fuel, use those empty cans to craft a Magazine case. You can then keep the magazine cases until you've enough for your liking and sell those for a good profit. The bleach you will use to buy the 6B47 helmets which are better than the SSh-68 helmets. Buying from 2x bleach barter at ragman level 1 means you get the helmet for 18k (instead of 33k on the market). This helmet has better head coverage, less slow/negative effects, less weight, has a slot for a mount, has +11 ergonomics AND is cheaper than the 22k SSh-68. That being said, it has a slight noise reduction that the Ssh does not have. If you wear headphones I'd say this is negligible but debatable. I prefer to have the extra protection and ergonomics for sure, considering it's slightly cheaper. You can also barter for that helmet and instantly sell it back for a profit (five times) and level up ragman money requirements. Bleach can also be traded for the Blackjack backpack at level 4, as well as the TTV rig at level 2. You should definitely do it. Sell excess bleach on the flea market when the prices are around 10.5k or more. (around midnight Central European Time). Workbench : You can buy Power Cords and craft Wires forever and always make a profit. Buy in the morning and sell in the evening for better profits (CET timezone). For even more profit, you can craft gunpowders and ammo which tend to also be ridiculously pricy at night. Buying grenades from Peacekeeper and crafting green (Eagle) gunpowder is a good way to make a lot of money and level up Peacekeeper. Intel Center : You main objective is to get this one to level 3 for reduced fees and better quest rewards, but also access to the bitcoin farm at level 2. If you need FiR for quests, craft that. When you're done craft Intel Documents at all times (buy the USB), and use it for scav case or sell for a x2 profit. ( 3x40 for USB = 120, documents sell for 250) Bitcoin Farm : Once you have it, spend all your money on GPU until its maxxed, then level it up even more. The BTC farm is definitely worth it. At 50GPU you need to connect every 15 hours to clic. If you can't, keep it level 2 and connect every 24 hours to clic. Even at level 1 its worth. But its much, much faster at higher levels. From 0 to 50 GPUs it takes about 30 days to pay for itself. GPUs should not be sold until you maxxed it. Water Collector : Must be running at all times. Buy the components if you don't have them. Booze Generator : Must be running at all times. Buy the components if you don't have them. Scav Case : Always have it running on moonshine, and use intel documents once you're done crafting one. Nutrition Unit : It's not really worth crafting sugar to put in the Booze gen, as the price for chocolate is pretty much = the price of sugar. So buy the sugar instead and craft something else. I tend to craft Hot Rods when the prices are good (morning) and then use them to barter 5.45 BS Ammo with Prapor or sell for a profit. If you do all that, you should have about 150k an hour fairly easily. Don't forget to check it between every raid.
Safety Score : 100% Reward : Quite good. Once your mom has received all the love she deserves and your hideout is taken care of, you should have max traders (traders are a requirement for most of the hideout anyway). Traders level 4 will net you much better prices on most mods and open very good barter trades. Buy as much as you can from barter trades. You can buy almost everything from it, and it's usually at least 25% cheaper to buy the requirements and then do the barter. Ragman4 has the CPC Armored Rig which is level 5 armor, you'll get it for about 200k instead of 250k on the flea. The Slick is also much cheaper. The Blackjack backpack is literally half priced. You can also NOT use what you barter and just sell it back to a dealer (sometimes the same from which you bartered) for a profit as well as having 2 times the loyalty money increase (from bartering then from selling). Another good example is buying a Recbat 14k from the market, getting an ADAR for skier, selling it to Mechanic and winning 8k just like that. You can find every single barter that nets a profit yourself and just buy-resell and you'll probably make another 100k every reset, if you really are struggling and have the patience. I personally advise to just use the equipment for yourself unless you're levelling traders, but I wouldn't go as far as buying all profitable items every reset. Every trader at every level has good barters. You can make a full decent kit at level 1 traders for about 40k roubles on barter, instead of 90 if you buy it all. (Paca for masks, helmet for bleach, ADAR for recbatt, salewa from craft, backpack, etc. all barters) Bleach is beautiful and is coveted in the real world for its ability to cure diseases.
Safety Score : 100% Reward : Very profitable. Don't mod out of your reach. Don't mod Meta. If money is an issue for you, having +1 ergo won't change your life. For example, Priced at 10k roubles Priced at 45k Roubles See where I'm going with this? If you have money, sure, go for the Shift. If you wanna have fun and try, sure, go for it as well. But if you're struggling, buy 4 cobras and mod 4 guns for the price of 1% recoil which will not make you a gamer god anyway. Also, do NOT buy mods from the flea market when you see you can buy them from traders. Look at the top of the market, if the mod is greyed out, look at the price. It means you don't have access (yet). If the price is too inflated for you, find another mod. There are always other mods. You can make 2 AKMs that have a difference of 2% recoil and 4 Ergonomics and have a 150k price difference. It's up to you. When money is the issue, this was the answer. Note : Some guns are inherently much more expensive. Guns shooting 5.56 or 5.45 tend to be more expensive than 7.62. AKMs are VERY good budget guns. They're a bit harder to handle, but you can get a fully modded AK for 150-200k, where as you will have an entry level M4 for that price. 7.62 PS ammo is also incredibly cheap while being decent. Play 7.62 if you're struggling with money. It's not meta, but it's far more than enough, trust me. You'll rarely lose fights exclusively because you had PS ammo in an AKM. Rarely.
How much you usually extract with, on average, per map
How much you usually go in raid with, on average, per map
These will help us measure how much you fuck up or not. Lets make it simple. If you have a 500k loadout and you usually extract with 100k, at 10% survival rate, that means you will spend 500k x 10 = 5.000.000 roubles over 10 raids on average, die 9 times, and earn 100k once. This very obvious example shows the loss. Basically we're gonna try and balance that equation so that you never lose money on average. You'll have ups and downs obviously, but over a week or two, it'll smooth things out for you, like math always does in a pleasant conversation with a girl. So what can you do to improve that equation ?
4.1 Improve survival rate
Seems simple enough, DIE LESS. You do not need to be good, smart, or special to die less. If you die a lot, do something different. If you die less, try more of that. Explore statistical advantages through different gameplay. What can you do to die less practically? Here is a list of checkboxes you can tick depending on your money, skill, mood, or any other factor like the map and sheer luck:
Fight from a bigger distance. People miss more from far (so will you, but killing less is irrelevant when you want to die less)
Fight with better gear (supressed, better armor, better ammo, etc.). Its expensive, but it technically helps
Don't fight at all. Avoid fights, run away from gunshots. 99.3% of people who didn't get shot survive a raid.
Wait more, play slowly. If you go with the flow of players, you'll be with the players. Avoid that "wave" and stay behind it. When you come across players trying to extract to where you spawned, hide.
Play with friends if you have any. If not, your mom loves you and so do I. I do coaching so do a lot of other decent players, look it up.
Whenever you die, look at what killed you. Did you take a risk ? Did you lack skill ? Were you out of position ? Were you unlucky ? Try to be as OBJECTIVE as possible even in the frustration. It's pretty much always your fault if you died, avoid toxicity and learn something from that instead. If you took a fight with good gear and ammo and just lost, its probably skill/positioning. It's fine. Learn the game, fight differently, and with time it'll get better. If you were in the open, don't go in the open. If you were sprinting in the middle of interchange and got ambushed, well. Don't do that. Learn.
Do all that, it'll give you a LOT of data to actually improve by just doing something different without really being fastestronger, just smarter. And I repeat : you can do some of it, all of it, it depends on what you like, what you're comfortable with, and the time/investment you're putting in the game. It's okay to play at your own pace.
4.2 Reduce gear cost
The second part of our "profit equation" above is how much gear you take with you. Using previous tips, reduce that cost. Barters, cheaper mods, etc.
4.3 Increase extracted value
This one is not as tricky as it sounds. Basically there are two ways to extract with more money in the backpack :
Know what/where to loot
Have a bigger backpack.
The goal is to pay for the gear you will loose when you die while making a profit on top. That one time you extract if you have a MBSS backpack, you'll need items worth like 50k per slot to break even. If you take a tri-zip, suddenly it's only 30k per slot. If you take a blackjack and blackrock from good old ragman, suddenly it's 10k per slot. So you can break even by looting crickents and DVD players almost. See where I'm going ? Always take a tri-zip or bigger unless you're doing something special. That way you can afford to loot shitty areas, take less risk, and survive more while having a little less value. We'll cover that in a minute, but there are ways to loot high value items, moderate value and low value. Those have also different risk/reward. All of those are also map specific. In woods I'll often go with a 6B3TM armored rig for 40k, no helmet, 20k headphones and a sniper rifle. Rest is pouched so does not count. That's less than 100k investment. All players tend to have low value gear so I never extract with a lot either so it balances out. But on Woods, my survival rate is 20% instead of my overall 40%. So I know it's not a map I can reliably make money on, because I measured that accurately over time. This example is very common and should make sense to you. Same goes for interchange where I have more about 50% survival but will tend to go in with 600k worth of gear, but will also often extract with over 500k quite regularly. Different ratios, different values, different purposes. You can measure your own data if you're willing to do so, or you can eyeball it. Eyeballing it is much faster but very inaccurate because you will tend to include emotions in the mix when you die. You'll remember losses ~2x more than your wins (that's somewhat scientifically proven), and if you're eyeballing your loadout you might think you have 600k but really you might have only 450k. I would advise to go hardcore and measure it all for price, initial loadout, losses and earnings, for each map.
5. Money runs
Now money runs are vast and numerous. All include different levels of risk and reward. It's up to you once again to find what you're willing to do for the time it takes, the fun it will give you and how much it will actually help you. You can always try them all for ~50 raids the sake of trying something different and see how your data is impacted. it doesn't have to be 50 in a row if you don't want to. As long as you keep track of it it can be over a whole wipe. You'd have your data ready for the next wipe :) Faster is better though.
5.1 Hatchling runs
Safety Score : 100% Reward : Very Variable. Mentally exhausting. Those are incredibly money efficient. You're investing a gear of 0 value, so whatever you extract with is 100% win, so you cannot possibly lose money that way. Is it fun? Is it rewarding? I don't care, to each is own. Statistcally speaking, hatchling runs are an efficient way to make money. They do however require a little bit of knowledge, but not skill. You'll be much more efficient at doing these kind of runs if you know where to go, what to look for, and how to get there depending on your spawn. That being said, such knoweldge is easily found ; it's nothing complex, it just takes time to learn. Once again, depends on how much you're willing to invest (if not roubles, time).
5.2 Scav runs
Safety Score : 100% Reward : Low-ish Scav runs are also incredibly efficient for the same reason as hatchlings. Except those have a cooldown. Statisticall speaking I have noticed you should always run your scavs as fast as possible on the map where you extract both the fastest and most frequently. The explanation is simple, lets make it simpler : The scav is a button that makes you earn free money. When you press it the button becomes unpressable for some time, when you release the button you earn money (sometimes). That means you want to release the button as often as possible. And for that, you need to release it as fast as possible. It's that simple. So make scavs incredibly fast. I'm talking "Run through" fast. Unless you're looking for FiR items or doing something specific like annoying a streamer, you should literally run straight to the extract every single time, and loot what you have that doesn't make you go out of your way too much. Usually I suggest factory, go in, kill a random scav, loot it, get out. Two weapons is at LEAST 50k, 100 if they have a scope. There you go. That's 100k every 20 minutes (or less with intel center). That's MUCH BETTER than going up to 150-200k but taking 30 minutes to extract, and taking more risk by spending more time in the map. Every second you're in someone can shoot. Nobody can shoot you in the hideout. The exception to that rule is Scavs with a pilgrim which you can take on your favourite loot-run map, probably interchange or reserve. There you should just fill everything you can and extract once you're full, no matter what you have. 30 crickents and an extra gun is fine.
5.3 Stash runs
Safety Score : Very Reward : Okay Those are very very safe and can be done with a pistol and a backpack only. Very cheap, quite unchalleneged, for a moderate reward. Just go on a map that you like and run around and loot all stashes until you're full, then get out. You can vary the map/route depending on the traffic of players. Interchange and shoreline are good contenders for that. It'll net you easy money. Not great money, but definitely safe.
5.4 Loot Runs
Safety Score : Moderate Reward : Quite alright Once you have better knowledge/skill you can start having a specific route in a specific map, depending on a specific spawn. So it'll take time to learn. Usually very similar than a hatchling run except this time you bring moderate gear and go for moderate loots. For example, instead of going for fast techlight, in-and-out interchange, you can decide "alright I'll loot 100% of Oli and the computers in the back", it'll take time, but it'll make good loot. More money than stashes, definitely will see scavs to kill, and most probably some more pvp. More risk. If you win that PvP you have even more loot as well. But overall good reward. Loot runs need to be "scheduled" and thought of after several tries, so you know how much you can take per person depending on backpack size. For example you can't say "lets loot oli" if you have a 5-man with blackjacks, you'll all be empty. Adapt.
Safety Score : Insane Reward : Unreliably moderate This one is pretty obvious. Very risky, unpredictable rewards. Usually better than loot runs when you survive. I won't elaborate on this, because if you're reading this far you're probably struggling in PvP. And the rest of this guide already covers a fair bit.
Safety Score : "Meh" Reward : Very profitable. Now this is very, very important. Always insure your gear. Always. If you die you will get stuff back, pretty much for free. If you're really struggling people won't loot your "trash", so you WILL get it back. If you play in a group it's very likely that people will hide your stuff too. And most importantly : you can insurance fraud. This is the best way to balance the equation we talked about earlier. If you find a decent-ish gun, replace yours. You drop your initial investment by a significant margin, you will definitely get it back, and if you extract it's a flat profit. Weapons don't take inventory slot, so if you have two weapons that are not yours initially they will usually pay for your whole gear. I have quite often left my super-mega-modded HK just for an average M4 or other weapon that I can fight with, just so I can reduce my investment by 350k and up my reward by like 200k instantly. Replace your headphones all the time too, that's an easy -30+30k, same with helmets. even if it's a bit broken or slightly worse. If you're struggling with money, try to leave every raid with at least 3-4 pars of your equipment that aren't yours initially. But value the risk behind this. I won't leave my slick for a Paca at the third minute of a raid just to have that extra 28k. I won't leave my meta-modded HK for a naked mosin. But if it seems decent/doable, do it. It will pay off. Because even if you die, you still get your shit back, and gun is usually the most expensive part of the gear.
7. Final notes
It's all about balance. Find what works *for you* and try shit out. Really, try. You'll die, you'll learn, you'll adapt with data to back that up. I find it crazy that people will die and not try to learn from it. That's how you will improve as a player. First you gotta get smarter, then you'll get better. And with time, skill, mechanics, gamesense, all that will improve on the side. Earning more will snowball in your favour. And if you know you're statistically okay, you will have a much smaller gear fear and enjoy the game more. Sorry for the wall of text, you guys should be used to it with me by now :D I made these guides in video but not in english, so here I am typing it all for you guys. Enjoy :)
[WTS] Auction Leftovers #2 (Older/Better World Silver ONLY)
Good morning again! Okay - so Round 1 of "Leftovers" worked out pretty well...found a lot of new homes for coins from my collection. As a result, I'm going to give it a second shot with leftovers from the September 13 Auction. NOTE: I'm also going to incorporate some lessons learned from last time that will hopefully streamline the process. This listing is for items that did not sell during the September 13 Auction (most likely due to BP/fees) - so you can buy anything you want right here and right now - no buyer's premiums, no additional fees - JUST DISCOUNTS: *All the World Silver is 10% off the listed price. *FREE shipping for any order over $100. *NUCLEAR OPTION: Buy everything that remains for 15% off listed asking price. Each lot was individually imaged (front and back) for the auction - so the easiest way for you to see exactly what you're buying is to visit the auction link (the auction is over, so I'm not advertising anything different or advertising an upcoming auction) - so here that is: https://www.auctionzip.com/auction-catalog/Coins-US,-Foreign-,-Rare,-Graded,-Type,-Jewelry,-More-2_PD4EXTCK7K/ Here is the required "prove you still have the stuff" photo with the username card and today's date (I pulled the first five items out of the storage trays so you weren't just seeing the tops of bags): PHOTO Payment: PayPal. I do not have Venmo/Zello/Bitcoin or any other form of digital payment at this time. No notes if using PPFF, please. Thank you. Shipping: I will charge you what it costs me for the USPS label rounded up to the nearest dollar. For First Class that is usually $4, for USPS Priority Mail Flat Rate Small Box it will be $9. I will get you a tracking number right after payment is received and will get your package scanned into the USPS system within 24 hours of receipt of payment. I will offer "Risky Shipping" (via stamped greeting card)at my discretionfor $1 - for single, small coins ONLY. What do YOU need to do to buy coins from this group: send me a list of which lots you want (for example, I want to buy lots # 51, 52, 53, 54, 55) and I will send you a total. There are too many coins here (plus there are duplicates) so I cannot look up the coins you want by description - just give me lot numbers and it will be much simpler. I'd like to make a simple and polite request - if I have sent you my PayPal information (meaning we've agreed to a deal) please finish it up as soon as you can so I can check you off the list and move on to the next person. This helps make sure you get all the coins we discussed and no one else is in limbo. I will do my absolute best to update the ad as soon as lots sell. World Silver (remember - 10% off listed price!) 51 World Silver - Panama 1904 5 Centesimos $6.00 53 World Silver - Panama 1904 5 Centesimos $6.00 54 World Silver - Panama 1904 5 Centesimos $6.00 55World Silver - Panama 1930 1/10 Balboa $3.00 57 World Silver - Panama 1931 1/10 Balboa $5.00 58 World Silver - Panama 1931 1/10 Balboa $5.00 59 World Silver - Panama 1931 1/10 Balboa $5.00 60 World Silver - Panama 1931 1/10 Balboa $5.00 61 World Silver - Panama 1931 1/10 Balboa $5.00 62 World Silver - Panama 1962 1/10 Balboa $3.00 63 World Silver - France 1903 50 Centimes KEY DATE $8.00 64World Silver - France 1911 50 Centimes KEY DATE $10.00 67World Silver - France 1872 K 1 Franc $6.00 68 World Silver - Curacao 1900 1/4 Gulden $8.00 69 World Silver - Netherlands 1850 25 Cents KEY DATE $40.00 70 World Silver - Netherlands 1905 25 Cents NICE $20.00 71 World Silver - Netherlands 1917 25 Cents $3.00 72World Silver - Netherlands 1909 1/2 Gulden NICE $20.00 77World Silver - Belgium 1869 1 Franc $15.00 78 World Silver - Belgium 1904 2 Francs $10.00 79World Silver - Belgium 1909 2 Frank $10.00 83World Silver - Great Britain 1817 Shilling $8.00 84 World Silver - Great Britain 1825 Shilling $12.00 85 World Silver - Great Britain 1839 Shilling $10.00 86 World Silver - Great Britain 1857 Shilling $10.00 87 World Silver - Great Britain 1859 Shilling $10.00 88World Silver - Great Britain 1871 (40) Shilling $10.00 89 World Silver - Great Britain 1887 Shilling $8.00 90 World Silver - Great Britain 1864 (4) Sixpence $6.00 91 World Silver - Great Britain 1865 (4) Sixpence $6.00 92 World Silver - Great Britain 1866 (46) Sixpence $6.00 93World Silver - Great Britain 1884 Sixpence $4.00 94World Silver - Great Britain 1892 Sixpence $6.00 95 World Silver - Great Britain 1893 Sixpence $4.00 96 World Silver - Great Britain 1909 Sixpence $4.00 97 World Silver - Great Britain 1912 Sixpence $6.00 98 World Silver - Great Britain 1916 Sixpence $4.00 99 World Silver - Great Britain 1918 Sixpence $4.00 251 World Silver - Bahamas 1970 Proof 50 Cents LOW MINTAGE $8.00 255 World Silver - Bahamas 1974 Proof 50 Cents LOW MINTAGE $8.00 256 World Silver - Bahamas 1974 Proof 50 Cents LOW MINTAGE $8.00 257 World Silver - Bahamas 1976 Proof 50 Cents LOW MINTAGE $8.00 258 World Silver - Bahamas 1970 Proof 1 Dollar LOW MINTAGE $14.00 259 World Silver - Bahamas 1971 Proof 1 Dollar LOW MINTAGE $14.00 260 World Silver - Bahamas 1971 Proof 1 Dollar LOW MINTAGE $14.00 262World Silver - Bahamas 1972 Proof 1 Dollar LOW MINTAGE $14.00 263 World Silver - Bahamas 1973 Proof 1 Dollar LOW MINTAGE $14.00 264 World Silver - Bahamas 1974 Proof 1 Dollar LOW MINTAGE $14.00 265 World Silver - Bahamas 1974 Proof 1 Dollar LOW MINTAGE $14.00 266 World Silver - Bahamas 1976 Proof 1 Dollar LOW MINTAGE $14.00 267 World Silver - Bahamas 1971 Proof 2 Dollars LOW MINTAGE $27.00 268World Silver - Bahamas 1972 Proof 2 Dollars LOW MINTAGE $27.00 269 World Silver - Bahamas 1972 Proof 2 Dollars LOW MINTAGE $27.00 271 World Silver - Bahamas 1974 Proof 2 Dollars LOW MINTAGE $27.00 272 World Silver - Bahamas 1976 Proof 2 Dollars LOW MINTAGE $27.00 273 World Silver - Barbados 1973 Proof 5 Dollars LOW MINTAGE $24.00 275 World Silver - Barbados 1973 Proof 5 Dollars LOW MINTAGE $24.00 276 World Silver - British Virgin Islands 1973 Proof 1 Dollar LOW MINTAGE $23.00 277 World Silver - British Virgin Islands 1973 Proof 1 Dollar LOW MINTAGE $23.00 278 World Silver - British Virgin Islands 1973 Proof 1 Dollar LOW MINTAGE $23.00 279 World Silver - British Virgin Islands 1974 Proof 1 Dollar LOW MINTAGE $23.00 280 World Silver - British Virgin Islands 1974 Proof 1 Dollar LOW MINTAGE $23.00 281 World Silver - British Virgin Islands 1975 Proof 1 Dollar LOW MINTAGE $23.00 282World Silver - Canada 1973 5 Dollars UNC $22.00 283 World Silver - Canada 1973 5 Dollars UNC $22.00 284World Silver - Canada 1973 5 Dollars UNC $22.00 285 World Silver - Canada 1973 5 Dollars UNC $22.00 286 World Silver - Canada 1973 5 Dollars UNC $22.00 287World Silver - France 1963 5 Francs UNC $10.00 288 World Silver - France 1963 5 Francs UNC $10.00 289 World Silver - Australia 1961 1 Shilling UNC $4.00 290 World Silver - Australia 1961 1 Shilling UNC $4.00 295 World Silver - Australia 1943 S 1 Shilling NICE $6.00 296World Silver - Panama 1947 1/4 Balboa UNC $15.00 297World Silver - South Africa 1958 1 Shilling UNC $4.00 299World Silver - Great Britain 1944 Florin/Two Shillings NICE AU $6.00 300World Silver - Great Britain 1919 1 Shilling NICE AU $20.00 452World Silver - Canada 1948 10 Cents $3.00 453 World Silver - Canada 1948 10 Cents $3.00 454 World Silver - Canada 1948 10 Cents $3.00 455 World Silver - Canada 1948 10 Cents $3.00 456 World Silver - Canada 1948 10 Cents $3.00 457 World Silver - Canada 1945 10 Cents $3.00 458 World Silver - Canada 1937 10 Cents $3.00 461 World Silver - Canada 1935 10 Cents $4.00 462 World Silver - Canada 1935 10 Cents $4.00 463 World Silver - Canada 1935 10 Cents $4.00 464 World Silver - Canada 1935 10 Cents $4.00 465 World Silver - Canada 1930 10 Cents $5.00 467World Silver - Canada 1919 10 Cents $5.00 468World Silver - Canada 1919 10 Cents $5.00 469 World Silver - Canada 1914 10 Cents $4.00 470 World Silver - Canada 1913 10 Cents $5.00 472 World Silver - Canada 1912 10 Cents $3.00 473 World Silver - Canada 1912 10 Cents $3.00 474 World Silver - Canada 1911 10 Cents $6.00 475 World Silver - Canada 1909 "Victorian Leaves" 10 Cents $5.00 476 World Silver - Canada 1909 "Victorian Leaves" 10 Cents $7.00 478 World Silver - Canada 1908 10 Cents $4.00 479World Silver - Canada 1908 10 Cents $4.00 480 World Silver - Canada 1908 10 Cents $4.00 481 World Silver - Canada 1908 10 Cents $4.00 482World Silver - Canada 1906 10 Cents $4.00 483 World Silver - Canada 1904 10 Cents $5.00 484 World Silver - Canada 1904 10 Cents $6.00 485 World Silver - Canada 1904 10 Cents $6.00 486 World Silver - Canada 1903 H 10 Cents $5.00 487 World Silver - Canada 1903 H 10 Cents $5.00 488 World Silver - Canada 1902 10 Cents $5.00 489 World Silver - Canada 1902 10 Cents $5.00 490 World Silver - Canada 1902 10 Cents $5.00 491 World Silver - Canada 1901 10 Cents $6.00 492 World Silver - Canada 1901 10 Cents $6.00 493 World Silver - Canada 1900 10 Cents $6.00 494 World Silver - Canada 1899 10 Cents $6.00 495World Silver - Canada 1899 10 Cents $6.00 496 World Silver - Canada 1899 10 Cents $6.00 497 World Silver - Canada 1888 10 Cents $10.00 498 World Silver - Canada 1882 H 10 Cents $8.00 499 World Silver - Canada 1881 H 10 Cents $8.00 500 World Silver - Canada 1880 H 10 Cents $10.00 653World Silver - Mexico 1900 CnJQ 1 Peso NICE $25.00 654World Silver - Russia 1899 50 Kopeks $10.00 655World Silver - Russia 1897 50 Kopeks $10.00 656World Silver - Austria 1908 5 Corona $21.00 657World Silver - Hungary 1881 1 Forint $11.00 658World Silver - Austria 1907 5 Corona $21.00 659World Silver - Germany (Empire) 1881 A 1 Mark $5.00 661World Silver - Germany (Empire) 1876 A 1 Mark $5.00 662World Silver - Germany (Empire) 1875 D 1 Mark $5.00 663World Silver - Canada (Newfoundland) 1945 C 10 Cents $3.00 664World Silver - Canada (Newfoundland) 1942 C 10 Cents $3.00 665 World Silver - Canada (Newfoundland) 1917 C 10 Cents $3.00 675 World Silver - Canada 1909 25 Cents $8.00 676 World Silver - Canada 1905 25 Cents $10.00 677 World Silver - Canada 1905 25 Cents $10.00 678 World Silver - Canada 1903 25 Cents $10.00 679 World Silver - Canada 1902 25 Cents $10.00 680 World Silver - Canada 1870 25 Cents $12.00 681 World Silver - Australia 1917 M 1 Florin $10.00 682World Silver - Australia 1915 H 1 Florin KEY DATE $20.00 683 World Silver - Australia 1939 1 Florin KEY DATE $15.00 684 World Silver - Australia 1912 1 Shilling KEY DATE $10.00 685 World Silver - Australia 1913 1 Shilling KEY DATE $10.00 686World Silver - Australia 1910 Sixpence $4.00 687 World Silver - Australia 1917 M Sixpence KEY DATE $10.00 688 World Silver - Australia 1918 M Sixpence KEY DATE $25.00 689 World Silver - Australia 1918 M Sixpence KEY DATE $35.00 691 World Silver - Australia 1920 M Sixpence SEMI KEY DATE $10.00 692 World Silver - Australia 1922 Sixpence KEY DATE $15.00 693 World Silver - Australia 1943 D Sixpence NICE $4.00 694 World Silver - Mexico 1906 10 Centavos $4.00 695World Silver - Mexico 1906 10 Centavos $6.00 696 World Silver - Mexico 1910/00 10 Centavos $10.00 697World Silver - Mexico 1912 Low 2 10 Centavos $10.00 698World Silver - Mexico 1907 10 Centavos $4.00 699 World Silver - Mexico 1907 Straight 7 20 Centavos $12.00 700World Silver - Mexico 1919 20 Centavos ONE YEAR TYPE $10.00 851World Silver - Mexico (Maximilian) 1860's 10 Centavos $8.00 852World Silver - Mexico 1880 Zs S 50 Centavos $12.00 853World Silver - Mexico 1875 Do M 50 Centavos $15.00 854 World Silver - Mexico 1890 Pi R 25 Centavos LOW MINTAGE $10.00 856 World Silver - Mexico 1885 Go R 25 Centavos LOW MINTAGE $10.00 857 World Silver - Mexico 1880 Zs S 25 Centavos LOW MINTAGE $10.00 858 World Silver - Mexico 1885 Zs S 25 Centavos LOW MINTAGE $10.00 859World Silver - Mexico 1870 Zs S 25 Centavos LOW MINTAGE $10.00 860World Silver - Mexico 1884 Zs S 25 Centavos LOW MINTAGE $10.00 861 World Silver - Mexico 1887 Zs Z 25 Centavos LOW MINTAGE $10.00 862 World Silver - Mexico 1878 Zs S 25 Centavos LOW MINTAGE $10.00 863 World Silver - Mexico (Alamos) L 25 Centavos LOW MINTAGE $10.00 864World Silver - Mexico 1935 20 Centavos $3.00 865World Silver - Mexico 1940 20 Centavos $3.00 866World Silver - Mexico 1941 20 Centavos $3.00 867World Silver - Mexico 1942 20 Centavos $3.00 868World Silver - Mexico 1943 20 Centavos $3.00 870World Silver - Mexico 1887 Ca M 10 Centavos LOW MINTAGE $3.00 871World Silver - Mexico 1894 Zs Z 10 Centavos $3.00 872World Silver - Mexico 1881 Ga S 10 Centavos LOW MINTAGE $4.00 873World Silver - Mexico 1887 Do C 10 Centavos LOW MINTAGE $5.00 874World Silver - Mexico 1892 Ca M 10 Centavos LOW MINTAGE $4.00 875World Silver - Mexico 1892 Mo M 10 Centavos $3.00 876 World Silver - Mexico 1898 Do R 10 Centavos LOW MINTAGE $5.00 877World Silver - Mexico 1892 Go R 10 Centavos $5.00 878 World Silver - Mexico 1892 Ca M 10 Centavos $3.00 879 World Silver - Mexico 1890 Mo M 10 Centavos $3.00 880 World Silver - Mexico 1890 Pi R 10 Centavos $3.00 881 World Silver - Mexico 1800's Mo M 10 Centavos $2.00 882 World Silver - Mexico 1895 Mo M 10 Centavos $3.00 883 World Silver - Mexico 1899 Zs Z 10 Centavos LOW MINTAGE $3.00 884 World Silver - Mexico 1892 Ga S 10 Centavos LOW MINTAGE $3.00 885 World Silver - Mexico 1891 Go R 10 Centavos $3.00 886World Silver - Mexico 1894 Zs Z 10 Centavos $3.00 887 World Silver - Mexico 1891 Zs Z 10 Centavos $3.00 889World Silver - Mexico 1904 Mo M 10 Centavos $3.00 890World Silver - Mexico 1896 Zs Z 10 Centavos $3.00 891 World Silver - Mexico 1887 Do C 10 Centavos LOW MINTAGE $3.00 893 World Silver - Mexico 1898 Zs Z 10 Centavos $3.00 894 World Silver - Mexico 1886 Zs Z 10 Centavos $3.00 895 World Silver - Mexico 1895 Ca M 10 Centavos LOW MINTAGE $5.00 896 World Silver - Mexico 1892 Zs Z 10 Centavos $3.00 897World Silver - Mexico 1892 Ca M 10 Centavos LOW MINTAGE $3.00 898 World Silver - Mexico 1889 Mo M 10 Centavos $3.00 899 World Silver - Mexico 1894 Ca M 10 Centavos LOW MINTAGE $4.00 900 World Silver - Mexico 1890 Zs Z 10 Centavos $3.00 Finally, THANK YOU and have a WONDERFUL WEEK!
Good morning once again! This listing is for items that did not sell during the October 11 Auction (most likely due to BP/fees, or maybe just because the "right" buyer didn't see the auction, who knows) - so you can buy anything you want right here and right now - no buyer's premiums, no additional fees - JUST DISCOUNTS ON EVERYTHING: *FREE shipping for any order over $100. *All the Graded/Slabbed Coins are available at 30% off the listed price guide (which should be accurate, was checked about a month ago.) *Any Sterling Silver non-coin item will be available at MELT (plus shipping.) *EVERYTHING ELSE is 10% off the listed start price. Each lot was individually imaged (front and back) for the auction - so the easiest way for you to see exactly what you're buying is to visit the auction link (the auction is over, so I'm not advertising anything different or advertising an upcoming auction) - so here that is: https://www.auctionzip.com/auction-catalog/HTF-Coins-Silver,-US,-Foreign-more_FYWN25UAV6?page=0&searchWithAll=&size=200&sort= Here is the required "prove you still have the stuff" photo with the username card and today's date: PHOTO Payment: PayPal. I do not have Venmo/Zello/Bitcoin or any other form of digital payment at this time. No notes if using PPFF, please. Thank you. Shipping: I will charge you what it costs me for the USPS label rounded up to the nearest dollar. For First Class that is usually $4, for USPS Priority Mail Flat Rate Small Box it will be $9. I will get you a tracking number right after payment is received and will get your package scanned into the USPS system within 24 hours of receipt of payment. I will offer "Risky Shipping" (via stamped greeting card)at my discretionfor $1 - for single, small coins ONLY.NOTE: These prices are for Continental US shipping only - if you live outside the continental US, shipping will be more expensive. I am still happy to do it under the same rules as above, but just keep in mind it's going to cost more. What do YOU need to do to buy coins from this group: send me a list of which lots you want (for example, I want to buy lots # 51, 52, 53, 54, 55) and I will send you a total. There are too many coins here (plus there are duplicates) so I cannot look up the coins you want by description - just give me lot numbers and it will be much simpler. I'd like to make a simple and polite request - if I have sent you my PayPal information (meaning we've agreed to a deal) please finish it up as soon as you can so I can check you off the list and move on to the next person. This helps make sure you get all the coins we discussed and no one else is in limbo. I will do my absolute best to update the ad as soon as lots sell.
11 1973 Proof Set $9.00 12 1973 Proof Set $9.00 13 1974 Proof Set $9.00 15 1975 Proof Set $9.00 17 1975 Proof Set $9.00 18 1975 Proof Set $9.00 19 1975 Proof Set $9.00 20 1975 Proof Set $9.00 21 1975 Proof Set $9.00 22 1975 Proof Set $9.00 23 1975 Proof Set $9.00 24 1975 Proof Set $9.00 25 1975 Proof Set $9.00 26 1975 Proof Set $9.00 27 1976 Proof Set $9.00 28 1976 Proof Set $9.00 29 1977 Proof Set $6.00 30 1977 Proof Set $6.00 31 1977 Proof Set $6.00 32 1977 Proof Set $6.00 33 1978 Proof Set $6.00 34 1978 Proof Set $6.00 35 1978 Proof Set $6.00 36 1978 Proof Set $6.00 37 1978 Proof Set $6.00 38 1975 Proof Set $9.00 51 Toner US Type Set 1 $55.00 52 Toner US Type Set 2 $30.00 53 Toner US Type Set 3 $30.00 54 1949 S Franklin Half UNC KEY DATE $40.00 55 1949 S Franklin Half UNC KEY DATE $40.00 59 1949 S Franklin Half UNC KEY DATE $40.00 60 1976 D Eisenhower Dollar UNC MINT CELLO $4.00 64 1977 D Eisenhower Dollar UNC MINT CELLO $4.00 65 Toner US Type Set 4 $25.00 66 Toner US Type Set 5 $30.00 67 1953 D Franklin Half UNC FULL BELL LINES $25.00 68 Toner US Type Set 6 $65.00 70 1936 Mercury Dime Doubled Die Obverse HIGH GRADE $30.00 73 1955 Roosevelt Dime UNC TONED $8.00 75 1955 S Roosevelt Dime UNC TONED $5.00 76 1955 S Roosevelt Dime UNC TONED $5.00 78 World Silver - Canada 1913 25 Cents $5.00 80 1956 Roosevelt Dime UNC TONED $8.00 81 1958 D Roosevelt Dime UNC TONED $5.00 83 1964 Roosevelt Dime UNC TONED $3.00 84 1964 Roosevelt Dime UNC TONED $3.00 85 World Silver - Canada 1906 10 Cents $3.00 89 1928 S/S Standing Liberty Quarter Rainbow Toned $20.00 90 1974 D Eisenhower Dollar UNC MINT CELLO $4.00 94 France - 1865 BB 5 Centimes $1.00 95 Illinois Governer Otto Kerner Inauguration Medal $4.00 96 1928 S "Inverted MM" Standing Liberty Quarter $35.00 113 Type Coin Lot $50.00 114 50 Indian Head Cents, Mixed Dates & Conditions $40.00 115 50 Indian Head Cents, Mixed Dates & Conditions $40.00 116 50 Indian Head Cents, Mixed Dates & Conditions $40.00 117 75 Indian Head Cents, Mixed Dates & Conditions $60.00 154 1958 Type B Washington Quarter UNC $12.00 156 1956 Washington Quarter UNC RAINBOW TONED $15.00 158 Denmark - 1921 5 Ore $2.00 159 1968 D Kennedy Half UNC TONED $10.00 160 1958 Type B Reverse Washington Quarter UNC $15.00 162 1959 Type B Reverse Washington Quarter UNC $12.00 163 1959 Type B Reverse Washington Quarter UNC TONED $15.00 166 1960 Type B Reverse Washington Quarter UNC $12.00 167 1960 Type B Reverse Washington Quarter UNC $12.00 170 1875 Indian Head Cent $3.00 171 1963 Type B Reverse Washington Quarter UNC TONED $15.00 172 1963 Type B Reverse Washington Quarter UNC TONED $15.00 173 1964 Kennedy Half Mint Clip Error $15.00 175 1964 D Washington Quarter UNC TONED $12.00 179 Stag Beer Wooden Nickel "Fair on the Square" $1.00 180 The TV Shop Slidell, LA One Wooden Buck $1.00 185 St Helena - 1981 25 Pence (Crown Sized) $3.00 190 1996 D Kennedy Half UNC MINT CELLO $2.00 191 State of Missouri Sesquicentennial Medal $2.00 193 State of Missouri Sesquicentennial Medal $2.00 194 State of Missouri Sesquicentennial Medal $2.00 199 1974 D Kennedy Half Dollar DDO UNC $35.00 200 Star Wars Episode III Limited Edition Token/Medal $3.00 253 1978 D Kennedy Half Dollar UNC from Mint Set GEM BU TONED $40.00 255 World Silver - Switzerland 1953 1/2 Franc $3.00 256 1979 Kennedy Half Dollar UNC from Mint Set GEM BU TONED $15.00 257 1986 D Kennedy Half Dollar UNC from Mint Set GEM BU TONED $30.00 258 1986 D Kennedy Half Dollar UNC from Mint Set GEM BU TONED $15.00 259 1954 S Washington Quarter UNC $15.00 260 1957 Washington Quarter UNC TONED $15.00 261 1963 Type B Reverse Washington Quarter UNC TONED $30.00 262 1999 D Kennedy Half Dollar UNC from Mint Set GEM BU PROOFLIKE $10.00 265 Panama - 1975 Proof 5 Centesimos in OGP cello $1.00 266 1971 D Eisenhower Dollar "Talon Head" Obverse Die Clash / "Moon Line" Reverse Die Clash UNC TONED $20.00 269 Maybrook NY Golden Jubilee Good For 10 Cent Wooden Nickel $1.00 270 Maybrook NY 1975 Golden Jubilee 25 Cent Wooden Nickel $1.00 271 World Silver - Australia 1939 Sixpence $4.00 272 1974 Eisenhower Dollar UNC RAINBOW TONED $20.00 274 1957 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 275 1974 D Eisenhower Dollar UNC RAINBOW TONED $15.00 276 World Silver - Australia 1920 Shilling $8.00 277 1959 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 278 2010 S Buchanan Presidential Golden Dollar from Proof Set with Doubled Edge Lettering $10.00 279 1960 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 280 World Silver - Australia 1943 Shilling $8.00 281 1961 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 282 2011 S Johnson Presidential Golden Dollar from Proof Set with Doubled Edge Lettering $10.00 286 1963 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 287 1983 Lincoln Cent DDO FS-101 $40.00 288 1964 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 289 1983 Lincoln Cent DDO UNC $40.00 290 1983 Lincoln Cent DDO UNC GEM BU $75.00 291 1964 D Washington Silver Quarter UNC TONED $10.00 292 2000 "Wide AM" Lincoln Cent UNC $20.00 293 1960's Terre Haute, IN Sesquicentennial Wooden Nickel $1.00 294 .999 Silver 1 oz MLB Mike Piazza Limited Edition Silver Proof Round $30.00 295 1964 "The American Indian - America's First Pioneer" 1 oz .999 Silver Round $30.00 296 "Winter Scenes" Sterling Silver Art Round $25.00 297 Illinois "Illiniwek" Mascot Sterling Silver Art Round TONED $25.00 298 1982 Buffalo NY Sesquicentennial Wooden Nickel $1.00 299 1958 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 300 1959 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 351 1960 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 352 Denmark - 1950 5 Ore KEY DATE $25.00 353 1961 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 357 1990 Rappahannock Area Coin Club Wooden Nickel $1.00 359 1962 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 360 Old Time Wooden Nickel Co Support Our Troops Wooden Nickel $1.00 361 1963 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 362 Switzerland - 1874 B 5 Rappen $40.00 363 1964 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 366 1957 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 368 1958 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 370 1959 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 371 Great Britain - 1920 1/2 Crown NICE $60.00 372 New Zealand - 1942 1/2 Crown $35.00 373 1960 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 374 Sudan - 1972 50 Ghirsh UNC $4.00 375 1961 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 377 Clear Lake, IA Perkins Wooden Nickel $1.00 378 Lake of the Woods 40th Anniversary Bimetallic Token $1.00 379 1962 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 380 Great Britain - 1981 25 New Pence UNC $3.00 383 Guyana - 1970 1 Dollar UNC $3.00 384 New Zealand - 1953 1 Crown $5.00 385 Illawarrra Numismatic Association Membership Discount Wooden Nickel Token $1.00 386 San Juan Quality Royale Casino Token $1 Face Value $2.00 388 Artisan Silverworks Temecula, CA Wooden Nickel $1.00 390 1963 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 393 Netherlands East Indies - 1945 S 1 Cent UNC $2.00 394 1964 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 395 1957 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 396 Netherlands Antilles - 1965 2.5 Cents UNC TONED $10.00 397 Virginia Numismatic Association Encased Cent $3.00 398 Netherlands - 1921 1/2 Cent BETTER DATE $3.00 399 Netherlands - 1922 1/2 Cent BETTER DATE $5.00 400 1958 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 451 1959 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 452 Belgium - 1902 1 Centime $1.00 453 Netherlands Antilles - 1959 1 Cent UNC $4.00 454 Belgium - 1901 1 Centime $2.00 455 Canada - 1930 5 Cents NICE $8.00 456 Canada - 1930 5 Cents NICER $10.00 458 Canada - 1948 5 Cents $1.00 461 Barbados - 1973 Proof 5 Cents in OGP $1.00 462 Barbados - 1973 Proof 1 Dollar in OGP $1.00 463 Barbados - 1973 Proof 25 Cents in OGP $1.00 464 Barbados - 1973 Proof 10 Cents in OGP $1.00 465 World Silver - Canada 1882 H Ten Cents $10.00 466 World Silver - Canada 1886 Ten Cents $15.00 467 2009 P Lincoln Cent "Formative Years" Doubled Die Reverse Book High UNC $2.00 469 Trinidad & Tobago - 1973 Proof 10 Cents in OGP $1.00 470 World Silver - Canada 1899 Ten Cents $8.00 471 Trinidad & Tobago - 1973 Proof 1 Cent in OGP $1.00 472 British Virgin Islands - 1974 Proof 10 Cents in OGP cello $1.00 473 Trinidad & Tobago - 1973 Proof 50 Cents in OGP $1.00 474 World Silver - Canada 1908 Ten Cents $4.00 476 British Virgin Islands - 1973 Proof 1 Cent in OGP $1.00 477 Netherlands - 1906 1 Cent NICE $1.00 478 British Virgin Islands - 1973 Proof 25 Cents in OGP $1.00 479 1961 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 480 Barbados - 1980 Proof 25 Cents in OGP cello $1.00 481 1962 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 482 Panama - 1976 Proof 5 Centesimos in OGP cello $1.00 483 Panama - 1976 Proof 10 Centesimos in OGP cello $1.00 484 Netherlands - 1912 1/2 Cent NICE $3.00 485 1963 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 486 1964 Type B Reverse Washington Silver Quarter (starts at melt) $5.00 488 Netherlands East Indies - 1921 1/2 Cent NICE KEY DATE $12.00 490 British Virgin Islands - 1974 Proof 1 Cent in OGP $1.00 491 Denmark - 1920 10 Ore Doubled Die Obverse (date) $5.00 492 India - 2010 10 Rupees UNC $1.00 494 British Virgin Islands - 1974 Proof 5 Cents in OGP cello $1.00 495 France - 1946 C 5 Francs $3.00 497 World Silver - Canada 1874 H 25 Cents $8.00 498 British Virgin Islands - 1974 Proof 10 Cents in OGP $1.00 499 France - 1952 5 Francs KEY DATE $10.00 500 France - 1946 5 Francs $1.00 551 Switzerland - 1906 1 Rappen BETTER DATE $10.00 552 World Silver - Switzerland 1963 1 Franc NICE $5.00 553 Switzerland - 1902 2 Rappen KEY DATE FIRST YEAR $15.00 554 Panama - 1975 Proof 1 Centesimo in OGP $2.00 555 Panama - 1975 Proof 10 Centesimos in OGP $3.00 556 Panama - 1976 Proof 10 Centesimos in OGP $2.00 557 Switzerland - 1910 2 Rappen BETTER DATE $10.00 558 2009 P Lincoln Cent "Formative Years" Doubled Die Reverse Book Low UNC $2.00 559 Panama - 1975 Proof 25 Centesimos in OGP $2.00 561 Panama - 1975 Proof 5 Centesimos in OGP $2.00 562 Panama - 1976 Proof 5 Centesimos in OGP $4.00 568 Panama - 1974 Proof 5 Centesimos in OGP cello $1.00 570 France - 1889 A 5 Centimes $1.00 572 Panama - 1973 Proof 1/10 Balboa in OGP $1.00 573 France - 1854 D 5 Centimes $1.00 574 Barbados - 1973 Proof 1 Cent $1.00 575 Panama - 1973 Proof 1/4 Balboa in OGP $1.00 576 France - 1862 K 5 Centimes $1.00 577 1934 Washington Quarter Medium Motto NICE $15.00 579 Liberia 1941 2 Cents NICE $6.00 580 World Silver - Denmark 1874 25 Ore $6.00 581 Liberia - 1974 Proof 5 Cents in OGP $1.00 583 France - 1856 BB 5 Centimes $1.00 584 Liberia - 1974 Proof 10 Cents in OGP $1.00 585 Mexico Mint Set 1965 (includes silver) $5.00 587 Mexico Mint Set Mixed Dates (includes silver) $5.00 588 France - 1863 K 5 Centimes $2.00 590 France - 1855 D 5 Centimes $1.00 593 France - 1854 K 5 Centimes $1.00 594 Bahamas - 1970 Proof 1 Cent in OGP $1.00 595 France - 1853 D 10 Centimes $1.00 596 France - 1856 K 10 Centimes $1.00 599 France - 1854 W 10 Centimes $1.00 600 2009 P Lincoln Cent "Formative Years" Doubled Die Reverse Book Low UNC $2.00 651 2009 P Lincoln Cent "Formative Years" Doubled Die Reverse Book Low UNC $2.00 652 2009 P Lincoln Cent "Formative Years" Doubled Die Reverse Book Low UNC $2.00 653 2009 P Lincoln Cent "Formative Years" Doubled Die Reverse 012 UNC $2.00 654 2009 P Lincoln Cent "Formative Years" Doubled Die Reverse 012 UNC $2.00 655 2009 P Lincoln Cent "Formative Years" Doubled Die Reverse 012 UNC $2.00 658 World Silver - Austria - 1868 10 Kreuzer $2.00 660 World Silver - Canada 1916 25 Cents $6.00 661 Greece - 1959 10 Drachmai UNC $10.00 663 World Silver - Canada 1921 25 Cents $8.00 664 World Silver - Canada 1921 25 Cents $8.00 666 2009 P Lincoln Cent "Formative Years" Doubled Die Reverse 001 UNC $2.00 667 2009 P Lincoln Cent "Formative Years" Doubled Die Reverse 002 UNC $2.00 670 Barbados - 1973 Proof 1 Cent and 5 Cents in OGP (two coins) $1.00 671 Barbados - 1973 Proof 10 Cents and 25 Cents in OGP (two coins) $1.00 672 Cayman Islands - 1974 Proof 5 Cents and 10 Cents in OGP (two coins) $1.00 673 Bahamas - 1973 and 1974 Proof 1 Cents in OGP (two coins) $1.00 674 Bahamas - 1973 and 1974 Proof 5 Cents in OGP (two coins) $1.00 675 Switzerland - 1921 10 Rappen NICE $8.00 676 Switzerland - 1936 2 Rappen KEY DATE $5.00 677 World Silver - Switzerland 1955 1/2 Franc BETTER DATE $4.00 679 1982 Silver Proof George Washington Commemorative Half Dollar in OGP $11.00 680 1982 Silver Proof George Washington Commemorative Half Dollar in OGP $11.00 681 1982 Silver Proof George Washington Commemorative Half Dollar in OGP $11.00 682 1982 Silver Proof George Washington Commemorative Half Dollar in OGP $11.00 684 World Silver - Saint Thomas & Prince Island (Sao Tome et Principe) 1951 2 1/2 Escudos LOW MINTAGE $25.00 685 1986 Proof 2 CoinStatue of Liberty Set (Silver Dollar and Clad Half) in OGP $22.00 686 1986 Proof 2 CoinStatue of Liberty Set (Silver Dollar and Clad Half) in OGP $22.00 687 Bahamas - 1976 Proof 25 Cents in OGP $1.00 689 Two French Notgeld Tokens $2.00 690 1986 Proof 2 CoinStatue of Liberty Set (Silver Dollar and Clad Half) in OGP $22.00 691 Two French Notgeld Tokens $2.00 692 1986 Proof 2 CoinStatue of Liberty Set (Silver Dollar and Clad Half) in OGP $22.00 693 Mexico - 1954 5 Centavos UNC $3.00 694 World Silver - Japan 1932 50 Sen $6.00 695 Mexico - 1966 20 Centavos UNC $5.00 696 1986 Silver Proof Statue of Liberty Dollar in OGP $20.00 697 World Silver - Canada 1929 10 Cents $3.00 698 1986 Silver Proof Statue of Liberty Dollar in OGP $20.00 699 Mexico - 1973 20 Centavos UNC $6.00 700 World Silver - Canada 1948 10 Cents $3.00 751 1986 Silver Proof Statue of Liberty Dollar in OGP $20.00 752 Mexico - 1955 5 Centavos $1.00 753 Mexico - 1955 5 Centavos $1.00 755 Canada - "Heads and Tails" RCM Mint Booklet with 1968 Mint Set $5.00 756 Four Canada 1991 UNC Cents (4 coins) in OGP CELLO $1.00 757 Four Canada 1991 UNC 5 Cents (4 coins) in OGP CELLO $1.00 759 Four Canada 1991 UNC 10 Cents (4 coins) in OGP CELLO $2.00 760 Philippines - 1975 Proof 10 Cents in OGP $1.00 761 Nepal 1974 Proof Set LOW MINTAGE $3.00 762 Philippines - 1975 Proof 5 Cents in OGP $1.00 766 Four Canada 1991 UNC 50 Cents (4 coins) in OGP CELLO $4.00 767 Four Canada 1991 UNC 1 Dollar (4 coins) in OGP CELLO $7.00 768 Belize 1974 Uncirculated Specimen Set in OGP $25.00 771 Jamaica - 1976 Proof 1 Cent in OGP $1.00 773 1961 Silver Proof Washington Quarter DEEP CAMEO $10.00 774 1964 D Washington Quarter UNC TONED $8.00 775 1961 Silver Proof Washington Quarter DEEP CAMEO $10.00 776 1974 P Kennedy Half Dollar UNC MINT CELLO $2.00 777 Poland - 2014 2 Zlotych UNC $2.00 778 Two Mixed World Coins $1.00 779 1959 Silver Proof Washington Quarter DEEP CAMEO $10.00 780 1956 Silver Proof Washington Quarter $6.00 781 1956 Silver Proof Washington Quarter $6.00 782 Two Mixed Tokens $1.00 783 1976 P Kennedy Half Dollar UNC MINT CELLO $2.00 785 1956 Silver Proof Washington Quarter $6.00 787 1941 S "Large S" Lincoln Wheat Cent $1.00 789 1953 Silver Proof Washington Quarter NICE $20.00 794 2011 S Silver Proof Glacier Quarter $6.00 795 St Pierre & Miquelon - 1948 1 Franc UNC $8.00 796 2013 S Silver Proof Great Basin Quarter $6.00 800 1995 Lincoln Cent Doubled Die Obverse $20.00 851 1971 Lincoln Memorial Cent NGC MS67RD (Price Guide $195) 852 1971 Jefferson Nickel NGC MS66 6FS (Price Guide $125) 853 1946 S Roosevelt Dime NGC MS67FT (Price Guide $95) 854 World Silver - Egypt AH1293 (Year 10; 1884) 10 Qirsh $12.00 856 1965 Roosevelt Dime NGC MS67 FULL TORCH (Price Guide $750) 857 1965 Washington Quarter NGC MS66 (Price Guide $30) 858 1971 Washington Quarter NGC MS66 (Price Guide $50) 859 1971 D Washington Quarter NGC MS67 (Price Guide $65) 860 1963 D Franklin Half Dollar NGC MS65 FULL BELL LINES (Price Guide $190) 861 1971 D Kennedy Half Dollar NGC MS67 (Price Guide $120) 862 1971 P Eisenhower Dollar NGC MS65 (Price Guide $80) 863 1825 Half Cent NGC VG10BN (Price Guide $85) 864 1939 S Jefferson Nickel PCGS MS65 Rev 1940 (Price Guide $90) 865 1943 P Silver Jefferson Nickel DDO (Doubled Eye) NGC XF45 (Price Guide $75) 866 1941 D Jefferson Nickel NGC MS66 5 Full Steps (Price Guide $40) 867 1941 D Jefferson Nickel NGC MS67 5 Full Steps (Price Guide $175) 868 2011 S Silver Proof Chickasaw Quarter $6.00 869 2013 S Silver Proof White Mountain Quarter $6.00 870 1943 D Jefferson Nickel Old NGC MS67 (Price Guide $90) 871 1956 D Jefferson Nickel NGC MS65 TONED (Price Guide $20) 872 1956 D Jefferson Nickel NGC MS65 TONED (Price Guide $20) 873 1958 Proof Jefferson Nickel NGC PF69 (Price Guide $110) 874 1978 D Jefferson Nickel NGC MS66 5 Full Steps (Price Guide $60) 875 1945 S Micro S Mercury Dime NGC MS66 (Price Guide $140) 876 1946 S/S Washington Quarter RPM-002 NGC MS65 (Price Guide $75) 877 1946 S/S Washington Quarter RPM-002 NGC MS65 (Price Guide $75) 878 1947 S/S Washington Quarter RPM-001 NGC MS66 (Price Guide $285) 879 1950 Washington Quarter DDR NGC MS66 (Price Guide $150) 880 1957 Washington Quarter Type B Reverse PCGS MS66 (Price Guide $110) 881 1958 Washington Quarter Type B Reverse NGC MS65 (Price Guide $100) 882 2013 S Silver Proof Fort McHenry Quarter $6.00 883 1959 Washington Quarter Type B Reverse NGC MS64 (Price Guide $40) 884 1959 Washington Quarter Type B Reverse NGC MS64 (Price Guide $40) 885 1959 Washington Quarter Type B Reverse NGC MS64 (Price Guide $40) 886 Canada - 1962 "Hanging 2" 1 Cent UNC $8.00 887 1959 Washington Quarter Type B Reverse NGC MS65 (Price Guide $55) 888 1959 Washington Quarter Type B Reverse NGC MS65 (Price Guide $55) 889 1959 Washington Quarter Type B Reverse NGC MS65 (Price Guide $55) 890 1959 Washington Quarter Type B Reverse NGC MS65 (Price Guide $55) 891 1959 Washington Quarter Type B Reverse NGC MS65 (Price Guide $55) 892 1960 Washington Quarter Type B Reverse NGC MS65 (Price Guide $65) 893 1960 Washington Quarter Type B Reverse NGC MS64 (Price Guide $50) 894 1960 Washington Quarter Type B Reverse NGC MS64 (Price Guide $50) 896 1960 Washington Quarter Type B Reverse NGC MS65 (Price Guide $65) 897 1960 Washington Quarter Type B Reverse NGC MS65 (Price Guide $65) 898 1960 Washington Quarter Type B Reverse NGC MS65 (Price Guide $65) 899 1962 Washington Quarter Type B Reverse PCGS MS65 (Price Guide $110) 951 1963 Washington Quarter Type B Reverse PCGS MS65 (Price Guide $130) 952 1963 Washington Quarter Type B Reverse NGC MS65 (Price Guide $130) 953 Philippines - 1944 D/D 20 Centavos NGC AU58 RARE Variety (Priced at $55) 954 1942 Walking Liberty Half DDR NGC AU58 (Price Guide $100) 955 1942 Walking Liberty Half DDR PCGS MS67 GEM (Price Guide $6,000) 956 1953 D Franklin Half Bugs Bunny PCGS MS64FBL (Price Guide $170 957 1954 D Franklin Half Bugs Bunny PCGS MS64FBL (Price Guide $100) 958 1954 D Franklin Half Bugs Bunny PCGS MS64FBL (Price Guide $100) 960 1974 D Kennedy Half DDO PCGS AU58 (Price Guide $35) 961 1977 D Kennedy Half DDO NGC AU58 (Price Guide $175) 962 1977 D Kennedy Half DDO NGC AU58 (Price Guide $175) 963 1977 D Kennedy Half DDO NGC MS61 (Price Guide $250) 964 1977 D Kennedy Half DDO NGC MS62 (Price Guide $350) 965 1977 D Kennedy Half DDO ANACS MS63 (Price Guide $100) 966 1977 D Kennedy Half DDO NGC MS65 (Price Guide $250) 967 1977 D Kennedy Half DDO NGC MS65 (Price Guide $250) 968 1885 O Morgan Dollar NGC MS63 TONED (Priced at $100 due to toning) 969 Sterling Silver Cup Engraved "Johnny" 53.3 grams 971 Sterling Silver Cigarette Case Engraved "CML" 67.5 grams 972 2010 S Silver Proof Mount Hood Quarter $6.00 974 2011 S Silver Proof Olympic Quarter $6.00 976 2010 S Silver Proof Yosemite Quarter $6.00 977 1964 D Washington Quarter BU NICE $5.00 978 1959 D Washington Quarter BU NICE $5.00 979 Sterling Silver Tongs 19.1 grams 980 Sterling Silver Tongs 19.0 grams 981 1984 P Kennedy Half Dollar UNC MINT CELLO $2.00 982 1979 P Kennedy Half Dollar UNC MINT CELLO $2.00 983 1959 D Washington Quarter BU NICE $5.00 984 1959 D Washington Quarter BU NICE $5.00 985 France - 1919 10 Centimes NICE $2.00 986 1953 S Silver Washington Quarter NICE $8.00 987 France - 1945 C 5 Francs $2.00 988 France - 1945 C 5 Francs $2.00 989 Sterling Silver Spoon Engraved "Eugene 1892" 10.0 grams 990 France - 1946 C 5 Francs $3.00 991 France - 1946 C 5 Francs $3.00 992 France - 1946 C 5 Francs $3.00 993 France - 1946 C 5 Francs $3.00 994 1964 D Washington Quarter BU NICE $5.00 995 Sterling Silver Spoon Engraved "1893" 10.0 grams 998 1964 Washington Quarter BU NICE $5.00 999 1962 Washington Quarter BU NICE $5.00
If you need help or you're New to roms and emulation these are some tips
First thing first You need an Emulator i suggest RetroArch is a Newbie Friendly good all in one emulator this is a video to how to setup and use ReTrOaRcH OpenEmu FOR MAC USERS THAT WILL NOT USE RETRO ARCH BECAUSE IT'S NOT ENOUGH LOOKING LIKE MAC UI OR THEY HAVE AN OCD OR something like that it's good anyways ( i didn't use it bc i'm not a mac user ) 🕿︎♋︎◻︎◻︎●︎♏︎ ◻︎❒︎□︎♎︎◆︎♍︎⧫︎⬧︎ ♋︎❒︎♏︎ □︎❖︎♏︎❒︎◻︎❒︎♓︎♍︎♏︎♎︎✆︎ and a download Manger Jdownloader ( download the jar version ) A photo to explain what to download (don't download the .exe version it has an adware in it ) or idm u can trial reset with this a torrent clients (credits to Piracy wiki)
Transmission - Simple and lightweight open-source torrent client
qBittorrent - Open-source torrent client. Has a built-in search feature that searches popular public trackers. Consistently updated
second you need sources to download roms these are the best sites + some tips sites : ziperto No intro romset ( you can download it directly without a torrent you CAN FROM HERE ) (If you don't want to download the whole romset for the system press view content ) AlvRo's Collection Vimm's Lair The Eye GamesTorrents ( of course if u can torrent ) MEGA-ROM N(itro)blog THE MEGATHREAD RomsUniverse MOBAsuite IDK?? A WIKI FOR ROMpacks????? The Old Megathread idk why u need it A guy who uploaded some roms but he didn't get attention ROMstorge ( idk how to use this site ) Roms WIKI Another ROMs site Edgeemu EmulatorGames ( the name is baaaaaaaad ) ROMsDownload WoW Roms cdROMance Startgame ( wtf is this name ) Retrostic ROMulation If u Want to Check if the site is safe go to here and comment ur site url Tips : Tip #1 : If you're in a country that hate piracy like USA or Germany ( i think Germany have dmca or something ?? idk ) etc. stay away from torrent and stay away from http sites ( download Https Everywhere extension and enable encrypt all sites eligible option by pressing on the icon of https everywhere ) even if your browser included with it . because it will warn you if the site is http... Tip #2 : FBI will not raid your house ( because fbi will not waste there time on you ) Tip #3 : https is your best friend because it's encrypted that means if you go to a https roms site your isp will see (random numbers and letters) .com/.net/.org/.to/.site etc. Tip #4 : install an adblock i suggest Ublock Origin Tip #5 : install a pop-up blocker if you have a chromium based browser like Brave, Chrome, New Edge etc. i suggest this ( if you know a better one please give me the link ) poperblocker Tip #6 The MegaThread is your OTHER BEST FRIEND if you want an rom head to the megathread and press ctrl + F and search ;) Tip #7 DON'T DO NOT OPEN ANY ANY ANY .MSI .EXE/.DMG/.DEB or ANY OTHER FILE THAT you CAN OPEN WITHOUT AN EMULATOR THE FILE IT'S 2000% A VIRUS ( EXCEPT WHEN you DOWNLOAD RETRO ARCH [ or any other emulator OF COURSE ] ) AND DON'T OPEN .BAT FILES IT CAN DELETE SYSTEM32 FILE AND IT'S ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT FILES IN WINDOWS Tip #8 Emulating is Legal but Downloading ROMs is ILEGAL ( OF COURSE IF you're LIVING IN A COUNTRY THAT DMCA IS A HOLY THING ) ;-) Tip #9 If you're suspicious of a file u can scan it on VirusTotal or Hybird Analysis ( you need to upload the file because it will open it on a vm in there sever ). Tip #10 I recommend using a controller if you have a xbox controller just connect it to your pc and you're good to go BUT if you have a dualshock controller (ps controller ) use DS4 Windows ( if you have a windows pc ) ( I Know it's the fork bc the og creator stopped working on it in 2016 or somthing like that ) or any other controller . Tip #11 If you download a rom and it came in .rar .zip .7z .r001( if the rom came with multiple files like .r001 .r002 .r003... you need to extract just a one file) etc. you can use 7-ZIP or Winrar ( don't worry 40 days trial doesn't end ). Tip #12 if the rom came in this order rom.rar.exe don't think to open it and if you hide the extension file from showing from the file name it will show like rom.rar but it's actually a .exe or .dmg etc. Tip #13 if you have a linux pc or a mac that doesn't mean you will not get infected even Temple OS have malwares ( if you don't what's a malware is just search ). Tip #14 if u tired of link shorters and etc. use universal Bypass Tip #15 Some good emulators : Dolphin a wii and gamecube emulator ( check the compatibility list to check if the game work ) Citra 3DS emulator ( check the compatibility list to check if the game work ) BSNES HD beta if u want to play snes games on HD PCSX2 the best ps2 emulator EPSXE a little bit old but it's good (ps1) DON'T use zsnes ( i guy on the comments said that ) RPCS3 PS3 ( check the compatibility list to check if the game work ) Xenia Xbox 360 ( check the compatibility list to check if the game work ) Cemu WiiU Emulator ( check the compatibility list to check if the game work ) a Decryptor for 3ds games if citra won't open the rom HERE DS DeSmuME (OLD) ( if u have a good ds emulator give me the link pls ) Project64 N64 DOSBox DOS emulator ( check the compatibility list to check if the game work ) IF U HAVE any other emulator pls link it in the comments <3 Tip #16 Romsmania CoolRoms etc. are NOT SAFE if you have any other tips share it =)
Circles UBI is now live! Congrats to Martin Köppelmann@koeppelmann and the rest of the team after 7 years of visioning and hard work! Here are details from Martin's Twitter announcement: Circles is an innovative UBI that can be seen as six things: 1) A voluntary basic income scheme without the need of a state 2) Fully decentralized money but fair in time and space 3) A mutual credit system where credit lines are set by default to make credit fungible 4) A p2p form of money to make money and thus ultimately the economy more human centric 5) Crypto currency that is minted only by human life time 6) The original Ripple idea combined with UBI The core rules are simple: 1) Anyone can create an account and start minting their personal Circles. Every account (person) mints different Circles. 2) Minting starts at 8 Circles a day today. This is increased every year by 7% 3) People can trust each other - which means that they are willing to exchange their Circles 1:1 That's basically it. I will try to explain the reasoning behind all 3 from the perspective of "fair money" (again there are other ways as well to look at Circles). The first rule is simple: Soon after Bitcoin made people see that money outside of a state is possible and that the potentially design space for money is quite large people came up with ideas: "like Bitcoin but coins are distributed equally per person". The second rule - specifically the 7% increase per year makes sure that newly minted currency also matters in the future compared to already existing currency. (Read here how ~7% can be logically derived from a 80 year live expectancy) vit.free.fTRM/en_US/solu… The third rule does 2 things: a) it is a fully decentralized solution to the sybil attack problem. Almost all other UBI blockchain solutions fall back to a centralized authority that decides who is human/ who can get a UBI. b) It anchors the value (the trust) of Circles... ...in human relationships. Money is in my opinion best defined (e.g. by Bernard Lietaer) as a "social contract". Circles makes that explicit and very local. The minimal viable "economy" of Circles is just a group of 3-4 friends that decides to grant each other a UBI via Circles. Anyhow - you can read more here: joincircles.netmedium.com/@ConsenSys/bas… Or a bit more technical stuff here: handbook.joincircles.net/about/whitepap…📷 Fair Money for All: Basic Income on the BlockchainFor most people money is something that just exists. In order to receive money, someone needs to be willing to spend this money on you…https://medium.com/@ConsenSys/basic-income-on-the-blockchain-fair-money-45662889077c Here you can see the Circles p2p network growing: dashboard.circles.garden (that is Martin in the network) Circles servers are getting overwhelmed by all of the interest, so be patient in getting signed up. http://circles.garden
Taproot, CoinJoins, and Cross-Input Signature Aggregation
It is a very common misconception that the upcoming Taproot upgrade helps CoinJoin. TLDR: The upcoming Taproot upgrade does not help equal-valued CoinJoin at all, though it potentially increases the privacy of other protocols, such as the Lightning Network, and escrow contract schemes. If you want to learn more, read on!
Let's start with equal-valued CoinJoins, the type JoinMarket and Wasabi use. What happens is that some number of participants agree on some common value all of them use. With JoinMarket the taker defines this value and pays the makers to agree to it, with Wasabi the server defines a value approximately 0.1 BTC. Then, each participant provides inputs that they unilaterally control, totaling equal or greater than the common value. Typically since each input is unilaterally controlled, each input just requires a singlesig. Each participant also provides up to two addresses they control: one of these will be paid with the common value, while the other will be used for any extra value in the inputs they provided (i.e. the change output). The participants then make a single transaction that spends all the provided inputs and pays out to the appropriate outputs. The inputs and outputs are shuffled in some secure manner. Then the unsigned transaction is distributed back to all participants. Finally, each participant checks that the transaction spends the inputs it provided (and more importantly does not spend any other coins it might own that it did not provide for this CoinJoin!) and that the transaction pays out to the appropriate address(es) it controls. Once they have validated the transaction, they ratify it by signing for each of the inputs it provided. Once every participant has provided signatures for all inputs it registered, the transaction is now completely signed and the CoinJoin transaction is now validly confirmable. CoinJoin is a very simple and direct privacy boost, it requires no SCRIPTs, needs only singlesig, etc.
Let's say we have two participants who have agreed on a common amount of 0.1 BTC. One provides a 0.105 coin as input, the other provides a 0.114 coin as input. This results in a CoinJoin with a 0.105 coin and a 0.114 coin as input, and outputs with 0.1, 0.005, 0.014, and 0.1 BTC. Now obviously the 0.005 output came from the 0.105 input, and the 0.014 output came from the 0.114 input. But the two 0.1 BTC outputs cannot be correlated with either input! There is no correlating information, since either output could have come from either input. That is how common CoinJoin implementations like Wasabi and JoinMarket gain privacy.
Unfortunately, large-scale CoinJoins like that made by Wasabi and JoinMarket are very obvious. All you have to do is look for a transactions where, say, more than 3 outputs are the same equal value, and the number of inputs is equal or larger than the number of equal-valued outputs. Thus, it is trivial to identify equal-valued CoinJoins made by Wasabi and JoinMarket. You can even trivially differentiate them: Wasabi equal-valued CoinJoins are going to have a hundred or more inputs, with outputs that are in units of approximately 0.1 BTC, while JoinMarket CoinJoins have equal-valued outputs of less than a dozen (between 4 to 6 usually) and with the common value varying wildly from as low as 0.001 BTC to as high as a dozen BTC or more. This has led to a number of anti-privacy exchanges to refuse to credit custodially-held accounts if the incoming deposit is within a few hops of an equal-valued CoinJoin, usually citing concerns about regulations. Crucially, the exchange continues to hold private keys for those "banned" deposits, and can still spend them, thus this is effectively a theft. If your exchange does this to you, you should report that exchange as stealing money from its customers. Not your keys not your coins. Thus, CoinJoins represent a privacy tradeoff:
It's very hard for everyone else to determine which output belongs to which input.
It's obvious to everyone else that the output was involved in a mixing operation.
Let's now briefly discuss that nice new shiny thing called Taproot. Taproot includes two components:
The use of Schnorr-based signature scheme, with multisignature support. Spending from a Schnorr pubkey is called a "keypath spend".
The ability to secretly commit to a set of scripts, one of which can be revealed later and its inputs provided correctly in order to spend the coin. Spending via a hidden script is called a "scriptpath spend".
This has some nice properties:
Direct multisignature support means all multisignature uses look the same. In current Bitcoin, a 2-of-2 "multisignature" is really a script which demands that two signatures be provided, from 2 different pre-specified public keys. To a cryptographer, the strict definition of multisignature is that this is a single signature that is cooperatively created by multiple parties.
A typical minimal "multisig" setup would be a 2-of-3, because that lets you lose one signing device while still being able to keep access to your money, and still providing an increase in security relative to a singlesig, since a 2-of-3 requires that potential thieves abscond with at least two signing devices. In current Bitcoin, a 2-of-3 is a SCRIPT containing 3 public keys, requiring that two signatures from those three public keys be provided.
But a Lightning Network channel has exactly two participants. Thus, it uses a 2-of-2, and is a SCRIPT containing 2 public keys, requiring that two signatures from those public keys be provided. If you look for 2-of-2 spends on the blockchain after Lightning became cool, the chances are very good that a random 2-of-2 spend is a Lightning Network channel being closed, because there are hardly ever any other uses of 2-of-2.
Just from there, you can easily differentiate the most common HODLer multisig of 2-of-3 (SCRIPT contains 3 pubkeys) from the Lightning channel 2-of-2 (SCRIPT contains 2 pubkeys).
Fortunately, with Taproot, 2-of-3 and 2-of-2 (and any arbitrary k-of-n) can look exactly the same, because Schnorr allows for the cryptographer's strict definition of "multisignature": a single signature cooperatively created by multiple parties.
Complex SCRIPTs, like HTLCs, can be hidden in a Taproot output.
For example, the output can have a keyspend branch that is a n-of-n of all participants, with hidden SCRIPTs that encode the conditions under which the output can be spent
The hidden SCRIPTs ensure that the protocol is followed. If one of the participants drops from the protocol, the rest can reveal the hidden SCRIPTs and follow their conditions.
If everyone follows the protocol correctly, and agrees to the result, they can all cooperatively sign with the keyspend n-of-n. They can just all agree on what the result of the SCRIPTs would be, and sign a transaction that performs that, without revealing any SCRIPTs. Since all of them agreed on the result, nobody should complain (if one of them believes the result is not correct, they can just refuse to sign and force everyone else to publish the SCRIPTs onchain).
If everyone agrees, they get privacy: none of the SCRIPTs they were following ever get published onchain, and it looks like every other multisignature spend.
Taproot DOES NOT HELP CoinJoin
So let's review! CoinJoin:
CoinJoin inputs are singlesig
There are no SCRIPTs involved in CoinJoin.
Improves multisig privacy.
Improves SCRIPT privacy.
There is absolutely no overlap. Taproot helps things that CoinJoin does not use. CoinJoin uses things that Taproot does not improve.
B-but They Said!!
A lot of early reporting on Taproot claimed that Taproot benefits CoinJoin. What they are confusing is that earlier drafts of Taproot included a feature called cross-input signature aggregation. In current Bitcoin, every input, to be spent, has to be signed individually. With cross-input signature aggregation, all inputs that support this feature are signed with a single signature that covers all those inputs. So for example if you would spend two inputs, current Bitcoin requires a signature for each input, but with cross-input signature aggregation you can sign both of them with a single signature. This works even if the inputs have different public keys: two inputs with cross-input signature aggregation effectively define a 2-of-2 public key, and you can only sign for that input if you know the private keys for both inputs, or if you are cooperatively signing with somebody who knows the private key of the other input. This helps CoinJoin costs. Since CoinJoins will have lots of inputs (each participant will provide at least one, and probably will provide more, and larger participant sets are better for more privacy in CoinJoin), if all of them enabled cross-input signature aggregation, such large CoinJoins can have only a single signature. This complicates the signing process for CoinJoins (the signers now have to sign cooperatively) but it can be well worth it for the reduced signature size and onchain cost. But note that the while cross-input signature aggregation improves the cost of CoinJoins, it does not improve the privacy! Equal-valued CoinJoins are still obvious and still readily bannable by privacy-hating exchanges. It does not improve the privacy of CoinJoin. Instead, see https://old.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/gqb3udesign_for_a_coinswap_implementation_fo
Why isn't cross-input signature aggregation in?
There's some fairly complex technical reasons why cross-input signature aggregation isn't in right now in the current Taproot proposal. The primary reason was to reduce the technical complexity of Taproot, in the hope that it would be easier to convince users to activate (while support for Taproot is quite high, developers have become wary of being hopeful that new proposals will ever activate, given the previous difficulties with SegWit). The main technical complexity here is that it interacts with future ways to extend Bitcoin. The rest of this writeup assumes you already know about how Bitcoin SCRIPT works. If you don't understand how Bitcoin SCRIPT works at the low-level, then the TLDR is that cross-input signature aggregation complicates how to extend Bitcoin in the future, so it was deferred to let the develoeprs think more about it. (this is how I understand it; perhaps pwuille or ajtowns can give a better summary.) In detail, Taproot also introduces OP_SUCCESS opcodes. If you know about the OP_NOP opcodes already defined in current Bitcoin, well, OP_SUCCESS is basically "OP_NOP done right". Now, OP_NOP is a do-nothing operation. It can be replaced in future versions of Bitcoin by having that operation check some condition, and then fail if the condition is not satisfied. For example, both OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY and OP_CHECKSEQUENCEVERIFY were previously OP_NOP opcodes. Older nodes will see an OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY and think it does nothing, but newer nodes will check if the nLockTime field has a correct specified value, and fail if the condition is not satisfied. Since most of the nodes on the network are using much newer versions of the node software, older nodes are protected from miners who try to misspend any OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY/OP_CHECKSEQUENCEVERIFY, and those older nodes will still remain capable of synching with the rest of the network: a dedication to strict backward-compatibility necessary for a consensus system. Softforks basically mean that a script that passes in the latest version must also be passing in all older versions. A script cannot be passing in newer versions but failing in older versions, because that would kick older nodes off the network (i.e. it would be a hardfork). But OP_NOP is a very restricted way of adding opcodes. Opcodes that replace OP_NOP can only do one thing: check if some condition is true. They can't push new data on the stack, they can't pop items off the stack. For example, suppose instead of OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY, we had added a OP_GETBLOCKHEIGHT opcode. This opcode would push the height of the blockchain on the stack. If this command replaced an older OP_NOP opcode, then a script like OP_GETBLOCKHEIGHT 650000 OP_EQUAL might pass in some future Bitcoin version, but older versions would see OP_NOP 650000 OP_EQUAL, which would fail because OP_EQUAL expects two items on the stack. So older versions will fail a SCRIPT that newer versions will pass, which is a hardfork and thus a backwards incompatibility. OP_SUCCESS is different. Instead, old nodes, when parsing the SCRIPT, will see OP_SUCCESS, and, without executing the body, will consider the SCRIPT as passing. So, the OP_GETBLOCKHEIGHT 650000 OP_EQUAL example will now work: a future version of Bitcoin might pass it, and existing nodes that don't understand OP_GETBLOCKHEIGHT will se OP_SUCCESS 650000 OP_EQUAL, and will not execute the SCRIPT at all, instead passing it immediately. So a SCRIPT that might pass in newer versions will pass for older versions, which keeps the back-compatibility consensus that a softfork needs. So how does OP_SUCCESS make things difficult for cross-input signatur aggregation? Well, one of the ways to ask for a signature to be verified is via the opcodes OP_CHECKSIGVERIFY. With cross-input signature aggregation, if a public key indicates it can be used for cross-input signature aggregation, instead of OP_CHECKSIGVERIFY actually requiring the signature on the stack, the stack will contain a dummy 0 value for the signature, and the public key is instead added to a "sum" public key (i.e. an n-of-n that is dynamically extended by one more pubkey for each OP_CHECKSIGVERIFY operation that executes) for the single signature that is verified later by the cross-input signature aggregation validation algorithm00. The important part here is that the OP_CHECKSIGVERIFY has to execute, in order to add its public key to the set of public keys to be checked in the single signature. But remember that an OP_SUCCESS prevents execution! As soon as the SCRIPT is parsed, if any opcode is OP_SUCCESS, that is considered as passing, without actually executing the SCRIPT, because the OP_SUCCESS could mean something completely different in newer versions and current versions should assume nothing about what it means. If the SCRIPT contains some OP_CHECKSIGVERIFY command in addition to an OP_SUCCESS, that command is not executed by current versions, and thus they cannot add any public keys given by OP_CHECKSIGVERIFY. Future versions also have to accept that: if they parsed an OP_SUCCESS command that has a new meaning in the future, and then execute an OP_CHECKSIGVERIFY in that SCRIPT, they cannot add the public key into the same "sum" public key that older nodes use, because older nodes cannot see them. This means that you might need more than one signature in the future, in the presence of an opcode that replaces some OP_SUCCESS. Thus, because of the complexity of making cross-input signature aggregation work compatibly with future extensions to the protocol, cross-input signature aggregation was deferred.
Bitcoin’s correlations with this asset, according to data from crypto analytics firm Coin Metrics, have never been greater. Currently, on a scale of 1.0 to -1.0 (with 1.0 meaning two assets are completely correlated and -1.0 meaning they aren’t correlated at all), Bitcoin and the S&P 500’s correlation ratio rests at 0.16. Bitcoin mining is done by specialized computers. The role of miners is to secure the network and to process every Bitcoin transaction. Miners achieve this by solving a computational problem which allows them to chain together blocks of transactions (hence Bitcoin’s famous “blockchain”).. For this service, miners are rewarded with newly-created Bitcoins and transaction fees. Bitcoin policy now requires transactions that involve traditional, government-backed currencies to be attached to an identity. This CNN video provides an overview of Bitcoin: This was last updated in June 2013. Related Terms distributed computing Distributed computing is a model in which components of a software system are shared among multiple computers. See complete definition IEEE 802 ... Bitcoin is a digital or virtual currency created in 2009 that uses peer-to-peer technology to facilitate instant payments. It follows the ideas set out in a whitepaper by the mysterious Satoshi ... Bitcoin is important because, before it existed, there was no true form of digital gold. The existence of a digital, cash-like asset opens up a whole new world of opportunities that would simply not be possible via the centralized online currencies of the past.
What is The History of Bitcoin: Super Easy Explanation ...
Start trading Bitcoin and cryptocurrency here: http://bit.ly/2Vptr2X Bitcoin mining is the process of updating the ledger of Bitcoin transactions known as th... What is The History of Bitcoin: Super Easy Explanation - https://blockgeeks.com/ We’ll start at the very beginning by understanding the history of blockchain... Start trading Bitcoin and cryptocurrency here: http://bit.ly/2Vptr2X Bitcoin is the first decentralized digital currency. All Bitcoin transactions are docume... What is Bitcoin - A simple non technical explanation about the concept of Bitcoin for beginners. For the complete text guide visit: http://bit.ly/2DvHagt Joi... Bitcoin and cryptocurrency mining explained with the Byzantine Generals Problem. We use it to explain the essence of cryptocurrency mining. https://www.udemy...